Penguin (Spheniscidae) Care Manual

Energetics of molt in penguins


The effect of flipper banding on the breeding success of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus at Boulders Beach, South Africa

Concerns have been expressed over the impact of flipper banding on the survival and reproductive performance of penguins. This study compared the breeding success of banded and unbanded African Penguins Spheniscus demersus at Boulders Beach, South Africa, in 2006. It was based on 100 nests; 50 had at least one banded adult and 50 had […]

A note on swimming group size in captive African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in relation to weather conditions

The swimming group size of captive African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) was studied in relation to weather conditions at Ueno Zoo. The occurrence of swimming behaviour did not vary between fair and cloudy conditions. However, the birds synchronized the timing of swimming with each other under cloudy conditions, and swimming group size increased under cloudy conditions. […]

Hormonal correlates of parental behavior in yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes)

Penguins show varying degrees of brood reduction behavior, from obligate brood reducers to brood maximizers, and we hypothesize that this is associated with differences in prolactin secretion. To address this hypothesis, we determined the breeding season prolactin profile of the yelloweyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) for comparison with those of other penguin species found in the […]

Effects of artificial social stimuli on the reproductive schedule and hormone levels of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes)

The effects of social stimuli on avian reproductive behaviors such as breeding schedules and courtship behaviors are well known due to numerous field studies. However, studies that have simultaneously examined the effects of social stimuli on reproductive behavior and the mediating endocrine mechanisms have been largely restricted to captive populations, which may not be representative […]

Semen collection, characterization, and cryopreservation in a Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus)

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1999)18:33.3.CO;2-R A cooperative method was developed for collecting semen from a Magellanic penguin. Ejaculate parameters and semen production during a breeding season were characterized. Experiments were performed to study the effect on penguin spermatozoa of two temperatures (4°C and 21°C) for short-term storage, and two cryoprotectants (dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO] and ethylene glycol [EG]) for long-term […]

A method for restraining penguins


Corticosterone and diving behavior in a diving seabird- the Adelie Penguin

Because hormones mediate physiological or behavioral responses to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli, they can help us understand how animals adapt their foraging decisions to energetic demands of reproduction. Thus, the hormone corticosterone deserves specific attention because of its influence on metabolism, food intake and locomotor activities. We examined the relationships between baseline corticosterone levels and […]

Penguins use the two–voice system to recognize each other

The sound–producing structure in birds is the syrinx, which is usually a two–part organ located at the junction of the bronchi. As each branch of the syrinx produces sound independently, many birds have two acoustic sources. Thirty years ago, we had anatomical, physiological and acoustical evidence of this twovoice phenomenon but no function was known. […]