Unrewarded Object Combinations in Captive Parrots

In primates, complex object combinations during play are often regarded as precursors of functional behavior. Here we investigate combinatory behaviors during unrewarded object manipulation in seven parrot species, including kea, African grey parrots and Goffin cockatoos, three species previously used as model species for technical problem solving. We further examine a habitually tool using species, […]

Thermal biology of African lovebirds and Australian grass parakeets

We compared aspects of the thermal biology of two groups of small parrots, of similar body mass, each derived from a range of habitat types, varying in aridity, but indigenous to either southern Africa or Australia. By accounting for phylogenetic differences, we were able to question whether arid zone species have lower metabolic rates and […]

The effect of early environment on neophobia in orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica)

Early experience is often a significant factor in shaping animals’ later behavior. Early maternal separation is associated with negative behavioral outcomes, such as increased fearfulness in rats, while higher levels of maternal grooming during the neonatal period are associated with decreased fearfulness and increased exploratory behavior. This finding may have implications for the welfare of […]

Effect of dilution degree of commercial nectar and provision of fruit on food, energy and nutrient intake in two rainbow lorikeet subspecies

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20240.abs A feeding trial was performed on adult rainbow lorikeets of two subspecies: six green-naped lorikeets (Trichoglossus haematodus haematodus) and six red-breasted lorikeets (T. haematodus mitchellii). Throughout the entire trial, half of the birds from each subspecies had ad libitum access to water-diluted commercial nectar powder and drinking water only, whereas the other half […]

Causation and influence of environmental enrichment on feather picking of the crimson-bellied conure (Pyrrhura perlata perlata)

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1997)16:23.3.CO;2-M This study examined the effect of environmental enrichment on feather picking in the crimson-bellied conure Pyrrhura perlata perlata. A total of 10 conures was observed, 8 of which showed minor to severe plumage problems. In a pre-enrichment period the conures were observed without changes in the environment to assess their social behavior and […]

Estimation of protein requirement for maintenance in adult parrots (Amazona spp.) by determining inevitable N losses in excreta

Especially in older pet birds, an unnecessary overconsumption of protein – presumably occurring in human custody – should be avoided in view of a potential decrease in the excretory organs’ (liver, kidney) efficiency. Inevitable nitrogen (N)-losses enable the estimation of protein requirement for maintenance, because these losses have at least to be replaced to maintain […]

Feather-picking Psittacines: Histopathology and Species Trends

Histologic findings are described for 408 feather-picking or self-mutilating psittacines with the use of biopsies from clinically affected and unaffected skin. Inflammatory skin disease was diagnosed in 210 birds, and traumatic skin disease was diagnosed in 198 birds. Criteria used for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin disease included the presence of perivascular inflammation in the […]

Manual of Parrot Behavior

Psittacines are maintained in captivity as pets, in the home, as breeding birds in avicultures, in zoos and in conservation projects. Because of their intelligence, playfulness and ability in mimicry, psittacines are the most widely kept companion birds. In the wild, these birds are normally social, living with others. In captivity most are kept in […]

Cognitive and communicative abilities of Grey parrots

This paper presents results of almost 30 years of study of the cognitive and communicative activities of Greyparrots (Psittacus erithacus), conventionally regarded as mindless mimics. These studies have demonstrated that Greyparrots can solve various cognitive tasks and acquire and use English speech in ways that often resemble those of very young children. Examples include the […]

Efficacy of foraging enrichments to increase foraging time in Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus)

Foraging enrichment is considered one of the most effective strategies to improve welfare and reduce stereotypies and other abnormal repetitive behaviours in captive animals, including parrots. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of the different types of enrichment and determined their effect on increasing foraging times and foraging-related activities. To study the effect of […]