Impacts of natural history and exhibit factors on carnivore welfare

To improve the welfare of nonhuman animals under professional care, zoological institutions are continuously utilizing new methods to identify factors that lead to optimal welfare. Comparative methods have historically been used in the field of evolutionary biology but are increasingly being applied in the field of animal welfare. In the current study, data were obtained […]

Do Social Factors Related to Allostatic Load Affect Stereotypy Susceptibility? Management Implications for Captive Social Animals

Stereotypies are frequently associated with sub-optimal captive environments and are used as welfare indicators. However, susceptibility to stereotypy can vary across individuals of the same group. As such, identifying which individuals are more susceptible to this behaviour may be helpful in managing this issue. We have investigated which sex-age class of semi-captive capuchin monkeys (Sapajus […]

Issues of choice and control in the behaviour of a pair of captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

Stereotyped behaviour occurs in a wide variety of captive animals including ursids. The provision of animal control over aspects of their environment by providing choices is a critical element for improving welfare. The behaviour of two sibling polar bears at a metropolitan zoo was examined to investigate the effect of providing access to their indoor, […]

Environmental effects on the behavior of zoo-housed lions and tigers, with a case study of the effects of a visual barrier on pacing

Tigers and lions in the wild are nocturnal nonhuman animals who may hunt and mate opportunistically during daylight hours. In captivity, they spend most time on exhibit sleeping or pacing. To better understand their activity budget, this study examined the daily behavior patterns of 2 Sumatran tigers and 3 African lions in different housings. The […]

Frustrated Appetitive Foraging Behavior, Stereotypic Pacing, and Fecal Glucocorticoid Levels in Snow Leopards (Uncia uncia) in the Zurich Zoo

This study hypothesized that permanently frustrated, appetitive-foraging behavior caused the stereotypic pacing regularly observed in captive carnivores. Using 2 adult female snow leopards (Uncia uncia), solitarily housed in the Zurich Zoo, the study tested this hypothesis experimentally with a novel feeding method: electronically controlled, time-regulated feeding boxes. The expected result of employing this active foraging […]

Stereotypic behavior of circus tigers: Effects of performance

Little is knownabout the effects of performances on the behavior of animals used for entertainment in circuses. The objective of the study was to determine how one or three performances per day influenced the frequency of stereotypic behavior performed by circus tigers (n = 4) in their home cage, shortly before and after performances and […]

The behavior of circus tigers during transport

The behavior of two tigers (Panthera tigris) individually caged and transported once for 4.25 h and the behavior of four tigers that were transported twice for 4.2 and 4.5 h while caged as a group was analyzed. The tigers were videotaped during transport and the amount of time spent pacing, lying, and standing and walking […]

Rituals, stereotypy and compulsive behavior in animals and humans

From a survey of the behavior of animals in the wild, in captivity, under the influence of psychoactive drugs and in a model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we identify that the behavioral repertoire invariably includes motor rituals, and that such rituals are performed at a few specific locations/objects in the environment with an orderly transition […]

Stereotypic behavior in Asiatic black and Malayan sun bears

The stereotypies of individually caged Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) and Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) were studied in detail. Stereotypies were performed by 27 of the 29 subjects, were primarily locomotory in form (e.g., pacing), and occupied on average 18% (standard error of the mean (SEM)=2.5) of daylight hours. Stereotypy levels during the night […]

Effect of feeding boxes on the behavior of stereotyping amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in the Zurich Zoo, Zurich, Switzerland

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10061.abs The stereotyped pacing shown by the two Amur tigers in the Zurich Zoo was hypothesized as being caused by permanently frustrated appetitive foraging behavior. Several electrically controlled feeding boxes were installed and access to each box was possible only twice a day for 15 min at semi-random times. The boxes had to be […]