Can disbudding of calves (one versus four weeks of age) induce chronic pain?
Background Calf disbudding is a welfare-relevant invasive husbandry procedure. While it is widely recognized that disbudding elicits acute pain, its chronic consequences are currently unknown. Objectives Primary aim of this study was to investigate whether disbudding leads to chronic pain in calves; secondary aim was to evaluate the influence of age at disbudding (1 week versus […]
A neuropsychological and evolutionary approach to animal consciousness and animal suffering
This paper will try to answer the question of whether animals can suffer. My aim is, firstly, to discuss whether or not an irreflexive animal consciousness could experience suffering. I do this because there are authors who assume such a consciousness in animals. The second part of this contribution concerns the question of the cognitive […]