Analysis of nutrient concentrations in the diet, serum, and urine of giraffe from surveyed North American zoological institutions

Abstract The objectives of the present research were to conduct a survey to investigate the health history and feeding practices of giraffe in captivity in North America and to obtain samples of hay, concentrate, browse, urine, and serum to compare across zoos, possible factors relating to the development of urolithiasis. Forty-one out of 98 institutions […]

Intake, utilization, and composition of browses consumed by the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harissoni) in captivity in Sabah, Malaysia

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20107.abs The significant threats to the fewer than 30 wild Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni, the Bornean sub-species of the Sumatran rhinoceros, are obvious and include poaching, habitat loss, and environmental changes. Subtle effects on population survival, however, include nutritional or other diseases, which affect morbidity and reproductive success. To address these issues and focus on […]

Energy and mineral nutrition and water intake in the captive Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20032.abs In the captive Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), two disease complexes with a high incidence—chronic foot problems and uterine leiomyomas—may be linked to excess body weight (BW). In this study, intake and digestion trials were conducted (by means of 7-day weigh-backs, and 5-day total fecal collections, respectively) with 11 Indian rhinoceroses at four zoological […]

Relationships among nutrition and reproduction and relevance for wild animals

This review discusses aspects of feeding ecology, nutrition, and dietary husbandry that are particularly relevant to reproductive success in wild animals. Emphasis has been placed on recently published literature. Special attention has been given to requirements for energy and protein and the unique roles of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, copper, […]

Considerations on the diet composition and feeding rate of dermersal sharks in 15 European public aquaria

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10090.abs To get an overview of the feeding practices applied to dermersal sharks in captivity, a questionnaire was sent to 15 European public aquaria. The most common dermersal shark species kept in the participating aquaria are Carcharhinus plumbeus (n=9), Carcharias taurus (n=7), and C. melanopterus (n=6). Body weight (BW) was calculated using captive estimated […]

Complete nutrient composition of commercially raised invertebrates used as food for insectivores

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10031.abs A variety of invertebrates are commonly fed to insectivorous animals by both zoos and hobbyists, but information as to the nutrient composition of most commercially raised species is limited. Adult house crickets, house cricket nymphs (Acheta domesticus), superworms (Zophobas morio larvae), giant mealworm larvae, mealworm larvae and adult mealworms (Tenebrio molitor), waxworm larvae […]

Nutrient composition of selected whole invertebrates

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1998)17:23.3.CO;2-D Although nutrient requirements of insectivores have not been specifically determined, detailed chemical analysis of invertebrates used in zoo feeding programs is essential for evaluating nutritional adequacy based on domestic animal models. Additionally, such data can provide valuable suggestions for future research priorities. Proximate composition, fat-soluble vitamins, and minerals in mealworms (Tenebrio molitor and […]

Tapir (Tapirus) enteroliths

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1997)16:53.3.CO;2-U Enterolith fragments from two tapir species and horses were subjected to x-ray diffraction analysis. Tapir enteroliths were formed as layers of mineral deposited around a foreign nidus. The structure was similar to that of equine enteroliths except that tapir enteroliths lacked a central region of radially symmetrical coarse crystals. The enteroliths from tapirs […]

Preliminary observations on the relationship of calcium ingestion to vitamin D status in the green iguana (Iguana iguana)

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1997)16:33.3.CO;2-0 We hypothesized the vitamin D-deficient green iguanas with depleted calcium stores would seek to augment calcium intake by self-selection of a high calcium source. Eight green iguanas were offered free-choice ground oystershell in addition to their regular diet. Of these, two had not been exposed to ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation for > 5 years […]

Effects of diet on nutritional content of whole vertebrate prey

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1996)15:53.3.CO;2-S Proximate composition (moisture, lipid, protein, ash), vitamin A and vitamin E content, and six minerals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn, Ca) were measured in quail, rats, mice, and guinea pigs raised on at least two different diets per species. Feed composition varied substantially but erratically in lipid, vitamin A, vitamin E, and mineral […]