Alpha male status and availability of conceptive females are associated with high glucocorticoid concentrations in high-ranking male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) during the mating season

The relationship between male mating opportunities, stress, and glucocorticoid concentrations is complicated by the fact that physiological stress and glucocorticoid concentrations can be influenced by dominance rank, group size, and the stability of the male dominance hierarchy, along with ecological factors. We studied the three highest-ranking males in nine different social groups within the same […]