Human-Animal Relationships: The Use of Species-Typical Food Calls and Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Names: Welfare-Oriented Tools to Manage Sanctuary Chimpanzees

In captivity, positive human-animal interactions are often part of daily management procedures, which can enhance the welfare of animals and help caregivers with routine husbandry tasks. For example, the provisioning of food (produce or enrichment) can be an effective tool to reward animals for positive behavior. Another option is to use species-typical behavior to request […]

Does group size matter? Captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) behavior as a function of group size and composition

The National Institutes of Health and the Association of Zoos and Aquariums recommend that captive chimpanzees be housed in multi-male, multi-female, age-diverse groups of no less than seven individuals. These recommendations are rooted in the idea that captive chimpanzee groups should be modeled after free-ranging, wild, fission-fusion chimpanzee societies. However, captive chimpanzees do not face […]

Development of a welfare assessment protocol for dairy calves from birth through to weaning

The aim of this study was to develop a welfare assessment protocol using different indicators, for pre-weaned dairy calves, that is feasible and time efficient. To this end, the protocol had to combine animal-based indicators (measurements on physiology, general appearance and behaviour) providing the basis for welfare assessment, with resource-based indicators (measurements on management and […]

A survey of dairy calf management practices in Canada that affect animal welfare

There is growing interest among the public in farm animal welfare and a need for methods to assess animal welfare on farm. A survey on calf rearing practices that might affect dairy calf welfare was performed via a 1-h interview on 115 dairy farms (mean ± SD: herd size = 52.5 ± 20.9 cows; milk […]

Standards for elephant management and care

The following standards apply to the husbandry and management of both African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in AZA accredited institutions, AZA related facilities, and non-member participants in the AZA Elephant Species Survival Plan (SSP). The intelligence, strength, and social needs of these magnificent animals can pose many challenges for captive managers. Institutions […]

Differences in husbandry and management systems across ten facilities housing Asian elephants Elephas maximas in India

A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted to document the husbandry and management systems followed by ten facilities housing Asian elephants Elephas maximas in India. Eighty-two Asian elephants at these ten facilities were surveyed between November 2004 and February 2005. A significantly greater percentage of the elephants managed by zoos (n54 zoos; 13 elephants surveyed) and […]

Stereotypic swaying and serum cortisol concentrations in three captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana)

The behaviour and serum cortisol concentrations of three captive female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) were studied to determine whether their stereotypic swaying was more prevalent before regularly scheduled events in the elephants’ routine, and whether the elephants that exhibited more stereotyped swaying had lower mean serum cortisol concentrations. Behavioural data were collected during hour-long observations […]

The effects of transport stress on tiger physiology and behavior

Tigers are often transported for education, conservation, and zoo enhancement purposes, however the effect of transfer on them has not yet been documented. Our objective was to evaluate how transport affects the behavior and physiology of tigers, taking into account previous experience with the transport procedure. We simulated transport by relocating five tigers in a […]

Behavior as a Tool for Welfare Improvement and Conservation Management in the Endangered Lizard (Gallotia bravoana)

The study assessed the behavior of Gallotia bravoana (La Gomera, Canary Islands, one of the world’s most threatened reptiles) to facilitate management decisions and improve welfare during initial stages of a species’ recovery plan. The study analyzed–and remote-controlled video cameras filmed-the behavior of lizards housed in 3 outdoor enclosures, from May to September 2000. Daily […]

Influence of environmental humidity and dietary protein on pyramidal growth of carapaces in African spurred tortoises (Geochelone sulcata)

The carapaces of captive-raised tortoises (terrestrial chelonians of the zoological family Testudinidae, often develop pyramidal-shaped osseous growth centrally within the horny plates. With very few exceptions (e.g. Geochelone elegans, Psammobates sp.), this conical growth pattern is considered to be pathologic. This very common defect is believed to be an important indicator of the quality of […]