Linear social dominance hierarchy and corticosterone responses in male mallards and pintails

In winter, dabbling ducks gather in large flocks and males compete not only for food resources but also for mates. Setting up a social hierarchy is one way to reduce the costs of conflicts, but the position in the hierarchy has implications for individuals, for instance their susceptibility to conflict and interference, hence to social […]

Personality tests predict responses to a spatial-learning task in mallards, Anas platyrhynchos

Behaviours are the result of the interaction between genetic factors, past experiences, and labile environmental and social influences. Usually, the behavioural variability of an individual is smaller than the behavioural range of its species, but stable over time and contexts. This intraindividual consistency has been termed animal personality, and is found in a wide range […]