Sexual dimorphism in the performance of chemosensory investigatory behaviours by African elephants (Loxodonta africana)

Sexual dimorphism in morphology can be accompanied by behavioural differences between the sexes. We examined if investigatory behaviour involving the trunk of African elephants showed sexual dimorphism. Males compete and search for females, but they have a lengthy period of development before they are socially viable mates. Receptive females are relatively rare. We hypothesized that […]

Discrimination of face-like patterns in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

The black-and-white pattern of the giant panda’s (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) fur is a conspicuous signal and may be used for mate-choice and intraspecific communication. Here the authors examined whether they have the perceptual and cognitive potential to make use of this information. Two juvenile subjects were trained on several discrimination problems in steps of increasing difficulty, […]