Individualities in a flock of free-roaming greylag geese: Behavioral and physiological consistency over time and across situations

The concept of personality implies individual differences in behavior and physiology that show some degree of repeatability/consistency over time and across contexts. Most studies of animal personality, particularly studies of individuals’ variation in physiological mechanisms, have been conducted on selected individuals in controlled conditions. We attempted to detect consistent behaviors as well as physiological patterns […]

Immobility and supination in garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) following handling by human predators

A common response of animals to physical restraint is tonic immobility. The authors observed the behavior of garter snakes, Thamnophis elegans, in the field to determine the frequency of immobility as a response to handling. Most snakes fled after release, but the remainder remained immobile, sometimes on their backs (supination), for up to 10 min. […]

Acoustic analysis of cattle (Bos taurus) mother–offspring contact calls from a source–filter theory perspective

Cattle vocalisations have been proposed as potential indicators of animal welfare. However, very few studies have investigated the acoustic structure and information encoded in these vocalisations using advanced analysis techniques. Vocalisations play key roles in a wide range of communication contexts; e.g. for individual recognition and to help coordinate social behaviours. Two factors have greatly […]