Observing Conspecifics Scratching Induces a Contagion of Scratching in Japanese Monkeys (Macaca fuscata)

Although a large number of studies have examined self-directed behaviors (SDBs) such as scratching and self-grooming as nonverbal leakage of negative emotional arousal in humans, few studies have investigated the informative function of SDBs in nonhuman primates. The present study investigated whether viewing another monkey scratching itself elicited negative arousal from conspecific observers in Japanese […]