Effect of stress on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: peripheral and central mechanisms.
This article reviews the mechanisms believed to mediate stress-induced inhibition of reproductive functions and the anatomical sites at which these effects take place. Particular emphasis is placed on the potential modulating role of hormones or neurotransmitters released during stress. At the level of the gonads, adrenal corticoids, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-like peptides, and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) are […]
Stress, captivity, and reproduction in a wild bird species
In seasonal species, glucocorticoid concentrations are often highest during the breeding season. However, the role of increased hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) activity in the regulation of reproduction remains poorly understood. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, to document reproductive consequences of a non-pharmacological hindrance to seasonal HPA fluctuations. Using wild-caught male and female European starlings […]