Bustard Care Manual

Optimal marine mammal welfare under human care: Current efforts and future directions

Marine mammals include cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, sea otters and polar bears, many of which are charismatic and popular species commonly kept under human care in zoos and aquaria. However, in comparison with their fully terrestrial counterparts their welfare has been less intensively studied, and their partial or full reliance on the aquatic environment leads to […]

Training penguins to interact with enrichment devices for lasting effects

The modern zoo has brought about two major advances in the behavioral welfare of their exhibited animals: (a) The use of environmental enrichment to promote naturalistic behaviors and (b) the use of training to improve voluntary husbandry care. Whereas training itself has been talked about as an effective enrichment strategy, little has been done to […]

Diurnal and Nocturnal Activity Time Budgets of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in a Zoological Park

The diurnal and nocturnal activity time budgets of five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were studied in a zoological park for two 24-hour, five 14-hour, and one 9-hour observation periods between May and June 2011. Relatively few studies have looked at detailed daytime and nighttime activity time budgets in captive Asian elephants. Continuous observation […]

Spatial considerations for captive snakes

Captive environments for snakes commonly involve small enclosures with dimensions that prevent occupants from adopting straight line body postures. In particular, the commercial, hobby, and pet sectors routinely utilize small vivaria and racking systems, although zoos and other facilities also commonly maintain at least some snakes under broadly similar conditions. Captive snakes may be the […]

Facility design and associated services for the study of amphibians

The role of facilities and associated services for amphibians has recently undergone diversification. Amphibians traditionally used as research models adjust well to captivity and thrive with established husbandry techniques. However, it is now necessary to maintain hundreds of novel amphibian species in captive breeding, conservation research, and biomedical research programs. These diverse species have a […]

Environmental Enrichment for Dendrobatid Frogs

The Central Park Zoo, one of the Wildlife Conservation Society’s Living Institutions in New York, recently renovated an exhibit for dart-poison frogs. Staff developed a new hollow coconut insect feeder in conjunction with this project. When the exhibit change, coconut feeder, and other enrichments were tested for effectiveness, the coconut feeder enrichment produced the greatest […]

Amphibian Biology and Husbandry

Extant amphibians comprise three lineages– salamanders (Urodela or Caudata), frogs and toads (Anura), and caecilians (Gymnophiona, Apoda, or Caecilia)–which contain more than 6,000 species. Fewer than a dozen species of amphibians are commonly maintained in laboratory colonies, and the husbandry requirements for the vast majority of amphibians are poorly known. For these species, a review […]

Laboratory birds: refinements in husbandry and procedures

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Differences in husbandry and management systems across ten facilities housing Asian elephants Elephas maximas in India

A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted to document the husbandry and management systems followed by ten facilities housing Asian elephants Elephas maximas in India. Eighty-two Asian elephants at these ten facilities were surveyed between November 2004 and February 2005. A significantly greater percentage of the elephants managed by zoos (n54 zoos; 13 elephants surveyed) and […]