Development of a welfare assessment protocol for dairy calves from birth through to weaning

The aim of this study was to develop a welfare assessment protocol using different indicators, for pre-weaned dairy calves, that is feasible and time efficient. To this end, the protocol had to combine animal-based indicators (measurements on physiology, general appearance and behaviour) providing the basis for welfare assessment, with resource-based indicators (measurements on management and […]

Comparison of the behaviour of European brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) in six different parks, with particular attention to stereotypies

In order to assess the influence of environmental parameters on their behaviour, 16 European brown bears were observed in six different zoological parks. Activities were measured by scan sampling and their relationships to housing conditions were established by multifactorial correspondence analysis and cluster analysis. The largest enclosures were characterised by high scores of play, social […]

Comparison between 28 zoological parks: stereotypic and social behaviours of captive brown bears

In the present study we compared 33 enclosures in 28 parks, with a total of 66 bears. We chose direct observation of behaviour rather than surveys. Each enclosure was observed during one day; stereotypies and social relationships were qualitatively noted in types and amount. The connections of behaviour with bears characteristics and types of management […]

Laboratory birds: refinements in husbandry and procedures


The effect of feeding enrichment toys on the behaviour of kennelled dogs (Canis familiaris)

In general, an animal’s inability to perform specific behaviours (for example, due to a lack of suitable stimuli or physical restraint) is often viewed as a cause of reduced welfare of animals kept in captivity. There is increasing evidence that the opportunity to display more species-specific appetitive behaviours is beneficial to captive animals. The present […]

The effect of penning versus picketing on stereotypic behavior of circus elephants

The behavior of nine female Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants who performed two shows each day with a circus that traveled to a new location (40 to 250 km from the previous day’s lot) daily or every two days was studied during the 1996 and 1998 seasons. When not performing or working, the elephants were picketed […]

A survey assessment of variables related to stereotypy in captive giraffe and okapi.

Stereotypic behavior has been investigated in a wide variety of animals, but little published information is available on this problem in captive exotic ungulates. A survey was used to gather information on the prevalence of stereotypic behavior in giraffe and okapi and to identify variables associated with these behaviors. Of the 71 institutions that received […]

The physiological and behavioural impacts of and preference for an enriched environment in the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina)

The physiological and behavioural impact of, as well as preference for, enriched versus barren environments was determined for captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). Thirty-eight box turtles were randomized to either barren (flat newspaper substrate) or enriched (cypress mulch substrate, shredded paper and a hide box) enclosures for a 1-month period. Complete blood counts, […]

Overall animal welfare assessment reviewed. Part 1: Is it possible?

Several authors have concluded that scientists should not attempt to perform overall animal welfare assessment (OWA). They argue that scientists have continued to fail to make progress in this area and that value judgements are inherently involved in OWA for which science cannot provide answers. We take a more positive attitude toward OWA and argue […]

Tongue twisters: feeding enrichment to reduce oral stereotypy in giraffe

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20180.abs Stereotypic behavior has been well-studied and documented in a variety of animals including primates, carnivores, and domesticated ungulates. However, very little information is known about stereotypic behavior of captive exotic ungulates. Giraffe have been found to perform a wide range of stereotypic behaviors. According to a survey of zoological institutions, oral stereotypies, specifically […]