Avian sleep homeostasis: Convergent evolution of complex brains, cognition and sleep functions in mammals and birds

Birds are the only taxonomic group other than mammals that exhibit high-amplitude slow-waves in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during sleep. This defining feature of slow-wave sleep (SWS) apparently evolved independently inmammals and birds, as reptiles do not exhibit similar EEG activity during sleep. In mammals, the level of slow-wave activity (SWA) (low-frequency spectral power density) during […]

What is in a name? Integrating homeostasis, allostasis and stress


A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis

Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current science of animal welfare is less scientific than […]

Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals

This article is part of a Special Issue “Puberty and Adolescence”. One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a […]