Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar human visual and olfactory cues

Social animals use individual identity cues to form and maintain social relationships with conspecifics. This ability to discriminate between individuals extends to heterospecifics in some social mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) could differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar people using visual, auditory, and olfactory cues independently. Two […]

Recognition of heterospecific alarm vocalization by Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata)

Recognition of heterospecific alarm vocalizations is an essential component of antipredator behavior in several prey species. The authors examined the role of learning in the discrimination of heterospecific vocalizations by wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) in southern India The bonnet macaques’ flight and scanning responses to playbacks of their own alarm vocalizations were compared with […]

Learning to listen? Nestling response to heterospecific alarm calls

Many nestling birds go silent in response to parental alarm calls, potentially lowering their risk of being overheard by predators. Parents are not always nearby, however, and so offspring could also benefit if they respond to the alarm calls of other species. Response could be innate, particularly if heterospecific alarm calls are acoustically similar to […]

Eavesdropping on the neighbours: fledglings learn to respond to heterospecific alarm calls

Young birds and mammals suffer from a high risk of predation, and should be under strong selection for early response to cues indicating danger, including the alarm calls of other species. Despite this prediction, there has been little investigation of the development of response by young animals to heterospecific alarm calls, and none on fledgling […]