A Protocol for the Ethical Assessment of Wild Animal-Visitor Interactions (AVIP) Evaluating Animal Welfare, Education, and Conservation Outcomes

Due to the popularity of wild animal–visitor interactions(AVIs),there is a need for an ethical assessment of their impact on animal welfare, education, and conservation. The protocol presented in this study is designed to evaluate such interactions on an integrated level, using a transparent analysis of all the aspects involved, including all the stakeholders and the […]

Extensive population genetic structure in the giraffe

Background: A central question in the evolutionary diversification of large, widespread, mobile mammals is how substantial differentiation can arise, particularly in the absence of topographic or habitat barriers to dispersal. All extant giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) are currently considered to represent a single species classified into multiple subspecies. However, geographic variation in traits such as pelage […]

Giraffa camelopardalis

species monograph

Arterial vascularization in the giraffe brain

The aim of this study was to analyze the system of arteries in the brain of the giraffe, including the arterial circle of the brain, its branches and junctions, as well as individual variation of the vessels. Analyses were performed on postmortem material of 12 heads of giraffes obtained from Polish zoological gardens. The age […]

Giraffe husbandry and feeding practices in Europe: Results of an EEP survey

Problems of the locomotory system (like overgrown hooves, laminitis or joint problems) have been reported from the EEP giraffe population. To evaluate relevant husbandry practices and frequency of the problem, a survey was done covering EEP institutions (response to the questionnaire from 70 institutions representing 74 individually managed groups). 40 of the 74 groups reported […]

The giraffe husbandry resource manual


Giraffe Husbandry Manual

Food consumption and energy budgets of the giraffe

(1) To estimate the efficiency of the foraging strategy described in Pellew (1984), the rates of food intake of adult giraffe in the Serengeti National Park are assessed. Daily energy intakes derived from the diet are compared with estimates of the energy requirements for year-round reproduction. The reproductive performance of giraffe in the Serengeti is […]

Effects of Dietary Physical Form and Carbohydrate Profile on Captive Giraffe

The effects of altering physical form and carbohydrate profile of giraffe diets were evaluated using six non-lactating adult female giraffe in a modified reversal study. Dietary treatments consisted of a supplement ration composed of commonly fed commercial concentrates (GF) and an experimental supplement (EF) containing greater concentrations of sugars and soluble fiber and lesser concentrations […]

Abstract: Giraffe nutrition study at the Wilds, Ohio

Captive management of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) has been hampered because of health and diet issues. Specifically, giraffe often suffer from rumenacidosis, which can lead to compromised digestion and shortened lifespan. Additionally, many individuals suffer from urolithiasis, a blockage of stones in the urinary tract, which can lead to sudden death. Several studies have suggested zoo […]