Eye white may indicate emotional state on a frustration-contentedness axis in dairy cows

Research on welfare indicators has focused primarily on indicators of poor welfare, but there is also a need for indicators that can cover the range from good to poor welfare. The aim of this experiment was to compare behaviour elements in dairy cows shown in response to a frustrating situation as well as elements shown […]

Effects of domestication on food deprivation-induced behaviour in red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, and White Leghorn layers

Domestication and selection for high production have selected animals with less energy-demanding behaviour. In the natural environment of the ancestors, fitness (reproductive success) is often favoured by an ability to locate and remember food sites, whereas in captivity, fitness may be more related to the ability to grow and reproduce efficiently under stable food conditions. […]

Effects of caloric, protein, and sodium deprivation on the affiliative behavior of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

The tendency of food-deprived, protein-deprived, and sodium-deprived Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and their respective controls to affiliate with conspecifics deprived of either food, protein, or sodium was examined. The authors found that (a) independent of internal state, focal rats offered a forced choice between protein-deprived and protein-replete target rats spent more time near replete than […]

Methods for Measuring Feeding Motivation in Sheep

The effects of food restriction on the welfare of sheep are as yet unclear. An operant crate and a push-door were used to measure feeding motivation in sheep after 0h, 6h, 12h, 18h and 24h without food. In experiment1, sheep had to push a panel with their noses to obtain a food reward. In experiment […]

Stress Hormone Responses of Sheep to Food and Water Deprivation at High and Low Ambient Temperatures.

The effects of food and/or water deprivation at different ambient temperatures (7 or 35 ·C) on stress hormone release in sheep (n = 8), were studied to provide background data for research into the effects of road transport. Blood samples were taken from catheterized animals at the start and, at 6h intervals, during 48h tests […]