The effects of cage volume and cage shape on the condition and behaviour of captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

Cage size is widely recognised as an important determinant of captive animal welfare, but in contrast, cage shape has received far less attention. Husbandry recommendations for flying birds state that cages should be long in shape because this allows greater potential for flight. However, so far no studies have investigated the impact of cage shape […]

Behavioural fear and heart rate responses of horses after exposure to novel objects: Effects of habituation

The emotion fear promotes the fitness of wild animals. In a farm environment, exaggerated fear, e.g., in horses, can cause several problems. Therefore, knowledge about fear in horses helps to prevent or to handle potential fear-inducing situations. The present study investigated which behavioural fear responses can be observed during exposure of horses to a novel […]

The effect providing space in excess of standards on the behaviour of budgerigars in aviaries

Budgerigars housed in conventional cages have no opportunity for some normal behaviours, in particular flight, and develop stereotyped behaviours. Increasingly aviaries are used for groups of budgerigars but the minimum space requirement to support normal behaviour is not known. We compared the behaviour of budgerigars in three aviaries, with 0, 28 and 56% increases in […]