Asian Elephants Are Not Self-sustaining in North America

Demographic analysis of the captive Asian elephants in North America indicates that the population is not self-sustaining. First year mortality is nearly 30%, but perhaps more important, the fecundity is extremely low (Mx = 0.01–0.02) throughout the prime reproductive years. Without continued importation or a drastic increase in birth rates, the Asian elephant population in […]

Captive breeding of the barndoor skate (Dipturus laevis) at the Montreal Biodome, with comparison notes on two other captive-bred skate species

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20170.abs In 1997, the Montreal Biodome obtained five barndoor skates (Dipturus laevis) from the waters off Boston, Massachusetts. Six years later, those specimens began reproducing, and the first egg case was collected in November 2003. Since then, 73 hatchlings have been born and raised. Egg cases were observed year round, and annual fecundity was […]

Female age-specific reproductive rates, birth seasonality, and infant mortality of ring-tailed Lemurs on St. Catherines Island: 17-year reproductive history of a free-ranging colony

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20062.abs To compare reproductive parameters of a managed population of free-ranging provisioned ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) to wild L. catta populations, we analyzed birth and mortality records collected over the 17-year history of the St. Catherines Island ring-tailed lemur colony. The majority of births in this colony (approximately 80%) occurred in March, which indicates […]

Age-specific fecundity of mammalian populations: A test of three mathematical models

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10029.abs Empirical age-specific fecundity distributions are often based on small samples and hence include high levels of sampling error, particularly at the older ages. One solution to this problem is to smooth the distributions using appropriate models. The aim of this article is to compare the utility of three models for smoothing and/or graduating […]

State of the North American African elephant population and projections for the future

Abstract 10.1002/1098-2361(2000)19:53.3.CO;2-F The African elephant has historically received less attention in the captive community than the Asian elephant. One manifestation of this lack of attention is that only 25 African elephant calves had been born in captivity in North America as of 1 January 1999. With the recent attention to both elephant species, it is […]

Reproductive biology of captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in Saudi Arabia

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1996)15:43.3.CO;2-P Reproductive data on captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) were collected from June 1986 through April 1992 at the National Wildlife Research Center (Taif, Saudi Arabia). Oryx females are polyestrous. The estrous cycle averaged 22 days and mean gestation length was 260 ± 5.5 days (S.D). Sex ratio at birth was unbiased and mean […]

The reproductive biology of female Père David’s deer (Elaphurus davidianus)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430080107.abs Data for this study came from breeding records of 27 Père David’s (Elaphurus davidianus) hinds maintained in large pastures and from estrous records of four hand-reared nulliparous hinds. The mean estrous cycle length ranged from 17.5 to 19.6 days. Standing estrus resembled that of other cervids, except that a low, moaning vocalization was […]

Fecundity and population viability in female zoo elephants: problems and possible solutions

We previously reported that African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) female elephants in European zoos have shorter adult lifespans than protected conspecifics in range countries. This effect was the cause of greatest concern in Asian elephants, and risk factors within this species included being zoo-born, transferred between zoos, and possibly removed early from the […]

Life-History Patterns of Cuban Poeciliid Fishes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes)

The following work provides basic information about the life history of 10 Cuban species of the family Poeciliidae. Adult fish stocks were captured in their natural habitat, and litters obtained from them were raised and maintained in captivity for 19 weeks. For each species, we present the mean value of newborn length (TLo), age at […]

Husbandry and enclosure influences on penguin behavior and conservation breeding

Multi-zoo comparisons of animal welfare are rare, and yet vital for ensuring continued improvement of zoo enclosures and husbandry. Methods are not standardized for the development of zoo enclosures based on multiple indicators, and case study species are required. This study compares behavior and breeding success to various enclosure and husbandry parameters for the Humboldt […]