Sociosexual behavior, male mating tactics, and the reproductive cycle of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis

Female distribution exerts a major impact on male mating tactics. Giraffe cows have a reproductive cycle, and a social system, that should favor a male roaming reproductive tactic. We conducted a 2-year study of female Rothschild’s giraffe (G. c. rothschildi) reproductive endocrinology in order to characterize attributes of the reproductive cycle and investigate how female […]

Development of a field-friendly technique for fecal steroid extraction and storage using the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20248.abs Hormonal analysis provides information about wildlife populations, but is difficult to conduct in the field. Our goal was to develop a rapid and effective field method for fecal steroid analysis by comparing: (1) three extraction methods (laboratory (LAB), homogenize (HO) and handshake (HS)) and (2) two storage methods (solid-phase extraction (SPE) tubes vs. […]

Characterization of basal seminal traits and reproductive endocrine profiles in North American river otters and Asian small-clawed otters

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20206.abs In this study, fecal samples were collected from 24 North American river (NARO) and 17 Asian small-clawed otters (ASCO) for 6–36 months and semen collected seasonally from NARO males (n=4/season) via electroejaculation. Our main objectives were to: (1) characterize endocrine parameters by longitudinal monitoring of fecal hormone metabolites and (2) investigate semen collection […]

Effect of housing and environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity, behavior and reproductive cyclicity in the female tigrina (Leopardus tigrinus) and margay (Leopardus wiedii)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20139.abs The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different captive housing conditions on reproductive cyclicity and adrenocortical activity in adult females of two small-sized felid species, the tigrina (Leopardus tigrinus; n = 3) and margay (Leopardus wiedii; n = 2). Females were housed as singletons and subjected to three enclosure […]

Longitudinal monitoring of fecal testosterone in male Malayan Sun bears (U. malayanus)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20061.abs Fecal steroid monitoring was applied as a non-invasive method to investigate testicular cycles and seasonality in the Malayan Sun bear (Ursus malayanus), an endangered ursid from South East Asia. Fecal testosterone was analyzed by radioimmunoassay in samples collected from male Sun bears (n=8) housed in zoological parks in North America and New Zealand, […]

Comparison of fecal storage methods for steroid analysis in black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20017.abs Many field studies and conservation programs for wildlife species include noninvasive endocrine monitoring of gonadal function. Freezing fecal samples immediately after collection until further analysis is often not a viable option for researchers in remote areas. Phase 1 of this study was designed to compare different methods of preserving fecal samples over several […]

Comparison of different drying and storage methods on quantifiable concentrations of fecal steroids in the cheetah

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10036.abs Fecal steroid analysis is a powerful tool that can provide important information on the health, physiology, and reproductive status of nondomestic species. However, studying free-ranging animals requires that feces be stored and transported from the collection site to the laboratory in a manner that prevents degradation or alteration of steroid metabolites. To determine […]

Reproductive endocrine responses to photoperiod and exogenous gonadotropins in the pallas’ cat (Otocolobus manul)

Abstract Fecal samples were collected for 14–26 months from three male and six female Pallas’ cats (Otocolobus manul) to examine gonadal steroidogenic activity in response to changes in photoperiod and treatment with exogenous gonadotropins. Females exhibited a seasonal anestrus from May–December, excreting consistently low concentrations of fecal estrogens (overall mean, 50.2±8.5 ng/g). During the breeding […]

Comparative analysis of gonadal and adrenal activity in the black and white rhinoceros in North America by noninvasive endocrine monitoring

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10028.abs Patterns of fecal reproductive steroid metabolites and adrenal corticoids were characterized for 12- to 24-month periods in black (n = 10 male, 16 female) and white (n = 6 male, 13 female) rhinoceroses at 14 institutions. All black rhinoceros females exhibited at least some ovarian cyclicity on the basis of fecal progestogen analysis […]

Reproductive steroid hormones and ovarian activity in felids of the Leopardus genus

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1010.abs Reproductive endocrine patterns were characterized in female ocelots (Leopardus pardalis; n = 3), tigrinas (Leopardus tigrinus; n = 2), and margays (Leopardus wiedii; n = 2) housed in captivity in southern Brazil. Females were maintained as singletons and exposed to natural fluctuations in photoperiod. Cyclic changes in ovarian steroids were monitored by analyzing […]