Euthanasia of rats with carbon dioxide-animal welfare aspects
A method of inducing euthanasia by carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation in the home cage of an animal is described and tested for distress by behavioural as well as by hormonal measures. The animals were maintained in their home cage while CO2 was induced at a flow of 6 l/min. The behaviour of the animals was […]
Dosage trials with transmucosal carfentanil citrate in non-human primates
Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1999)18:53.3.CO;2-L The traditional method of immobilizing non-human primates involves remote-delivery injection of anesthetic agents. Orally delivered, transmucosally absorbed opioids have been shown to be a non-stressful alternative method of pre-anesthetic drug administration in children and adults [Stanley et al., 1989]. This report describes several cases using transmucosal carfentanil in non-human primates to determine whether […]
Welfare of animals: Introduction
Animal welfare and animal behavior are tightly linked with behaviors commonly used as indicators of an animal’s welfare. Behaviors keep animals healthy and they indicate disease and distress. This introductory article, and those that follow in this section, points out a wide variety of connections between the two disciplines and notes differences between them as […]
Is ‘a life worth living’ a concept worth having?
A recent FAWC report introduced ‘a life worth living’ as a useful concept in farm animal welfare discussions and policy. But what does this concept mean? And is it a useful one? This paper extends FAWC’s approach in several ways. It firstly provides an account of the concept of a life worth living in more […]
Euthanasia methods, corticosterone and haematocrit levels in Xenopus laevis: evidence for differences in stress?
Amphibians, like other vertebrates, respond to acute stressors by releasing glucocorticoid steroid hormones that mediate physiological and behavioural responses to stress. Measurement of stress hormones provides a potential means to improve the welfare of laboratory animals. For example, manipulations of laboratory housing and procedures combined with measurement of glucocorticoids may identify which conditions are more […]
Quality of life means welfare: How is it related to other concepts and assessed?
Our view of which individuals should be the subjects of our moral actions is expanding to include more people and more species. Animal welfare is the subject of rapidly increasing concern in most countries in the world, and this concern is resulting in changes in the ways in which animal users keep and treat animals. […]
A scoring system to evaluate physical condition and quality of life in geriatric zoo mammals
The decision to perform euthanasia in geriatric zoo mammals is usually a highly complex procedure involving ethical, medical, emotional and sometimes political factors. However, subsequent necropsies show that the pathological changes of organs and/or the musculoskeletal system are often already advanced. Therefore, we hypothesise that euthanasia is often delayed to the detriment of the animal’s […]
The Control of Zoo Populations with Special Reference to Primates
Modern zoos are increasingly successful in maintaining and breeding exotic species. Many of the animals bred in captivity cannot be housed in their natal zoo nor in other recognized zoos in the region. These ‘surplus’ animals create a problem as zoos only have limited space at their disposal. The options open in this situation are […]
Gas killing of rats: the effect of supplemental oxygen on aversion to carbon dioxide
High concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), used for killing laboratory rodents, are known to be more strongly aversive to rats than sweet food items are attractive. This study investigated whether the maintenance of a high oxygen (O2) concentration, using a gas mixture of 70% CO2 and 30% O2, would reduce aversion to CO2 during a […]
The value of animal life- how should we balance quality against quantity?
In many situations choices must be made that will have an impact on the welfare of companion animals. Often one of the options will be to euthanase the animal in question. The way in which one views this option will depend not only on one’s assessment of the quality of the animal’s life (or the […]