How do Common Otters (Lutra lutra, Linnaeus 1758) Interact? Behavioral Study on a Pair of Otters in Captivity

Common Otter is a fairly well-known species, however few studies have focused on their behavior. This is related with the challenges inherent to the observation of otters in the nature. For that reason, in the present work, a male and a female of this species in a captivity environment were observed. The aim was to […]

Reliability of a descriptive reference ethogram for equitation science

An ethogram and its components, correctly defined behavior units, are the fundamental measuring tools for (applied) ethology and, therefore, also for equitation science, the nascent discipline that gathers evidence based on horse training, handling, and riding. However, there is currently no consensus on names and definitions of equine behaviors, and no purely descriptive ethogram for […]

Elephant Communication

Elephants live in a complex society in which both long- and short-distance communication plays an important role in the ability to locate mates and to maintain intra- and inter-group cohesion. Elephants use a variety of sensory channels in ways both complementary and redundant to achieve this communication, as well as to advertise physiological states, allow […]

Behavioral research to answer questions about animal welfare

A research strategy designed to develop systematically the behavioral catalogues (ethograms) of domestic production animals is presented. Measurement scales, observational techniques and recording methods are discussed. Suggestions about how these behavioral measures may be used to resolve animal welfare problems are presented. The need for trained applied ethologists and for the allocation of research funds […]

Social interactions in captive female Florida manatees

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20044.abs The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is considered a semi-social species with strong bonds developed primarily between mother and offspring. Some field studies suggest sociality may be more developed and such social relationships may facilitate survival. Seven facilities in Florida house manatees, many of which were brought into captivity because of injury or […]

Equid play ethogram

An ethogram of play behavior among equids was developed. Several key English-language studies on equids were reviewed to derive a preliminary inventory of specific behaviors to be included in the ethogram. Our primary observations were based on a herd of semi-feral Shetland-type ponies kept at New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, […]

A Proposed Ethogram of Large-Carnivore Predatory Behavior, Exemplified by the Wolf

Although predatory behavior is traditionally described by a basic ethogram composed of 3 phases (search, pursue, and capture), behavioral studies of large terrestrial carnivores generally use the concept of a “hunt” to classify and measure foraging. This approach is problematic because there is no consensus on what behaviors constitute a hunt. We therefore examined how […]

In pursuit of “normal”: A review of the behaviour of cattle at pasture

One of the “Five Freedoms” proposed by the Farm Animal Welfare Council in Great Britain is that animals should be free to express normal behaviour. For various domesticated species, the study of still-existing wild ancestors has been one approach in the definition of normal. However, for domesticated cattle, no such wild ancestor exists, so the […]

Inferential and visual analysis of ethogram data using multivariate techniques


Ethosearch: A New Online Resource for Ethograms and Evaluating Behavior and Welfare