Predicting reproduction in captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20020.abs The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a threatened species. It is also a popular exhibit animal in many zoos and aquariums worldwide. Unfortunately, sea otters reproduce successfully in only a small number of facilities. Pregnancies vary in duration, and are thought to involve a delayed implantation of about 2–3 months, followed by an […]

Use of salivary steroid analyses to assess ovarian cycles in an Indian rhinoceros at the National Zoological Park

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20028.abs Saliva samples were collected from a female Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) housed at the National Zoological Park, and ether-extracted for analyses of androgen, estrogen, and progestin metabolites to assess ovarian cycles. Analyses of both salivary androgens and estrogens were found to reliably monitor follicular activity. Although the temporal patterns of the two steroids […]

Reproductive patterns in pygmy lorises (Nycticebus pygmaeus): Behavioral and physiological correlates of gonadal activity

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10072.abs The purpose of this study was to evaluate behavioral and physiological parameters of reproduction in a breeding colony of pygmy lorises. To this end, nine male and eight female adult pygmy lorises were kept under natural lighting conditions and monitored through five consecutive breeding seasons. Behavioral data were collected continuously throughout the year […]

Hormonal and behavioral correlates of estrus in captive giant pandas

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10047.abs Variability in female estrus expression has been identified as a barrier to captive panda reproduction [Lindburg and Millard, 1995]. In China, researchers have reported that 80% of female giant pandas in captivity exhibit “weak estrus,” or “the absence of overt estrous behavior” [Shuling et al., 1997]. Previous research on the reproductive endocrinology and […]

Hormonal and behavioral relationships during estrus in the giant panda

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10027.abs Nonlactating female giant pandas experience a single estrus during the spring mating season. Although both hormonal and behavioral aspects of estrus have been reported on captive females, little is known about the relationship between them. Data were collected on a single captive female during three successive seasons, revealing a high degree of regularity […]

Reproductive cycle length and pregnancy in the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) as determined by fecal pregnane analysis and observations of mating behavior

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1999)18:23.3.CO;2-S Pregnancy and the reproductive cycle were monitored in 13 captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) by measuring progesterone metabolites in fecal extracts and by observing behavior patterns. Fecal hormones were measured using a monoclonal antibody produced against 4-pregnen-11-o1-3,20-dione hemisuccinate:BSA. Several subjects exhibited flat or erratic endocrine profiles, but we found evidence for […]

Use of behavioral measures to assess reproductive status in maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus)

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1996)15:63.3.CO;2-# Captive breeding efforts of the threatened maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) have been plagued by a lack of reliable reproduction and a high rate of neonatal mortality. A particular problem for animal managers has been the ability to detect pregnancy in a noninvasive manner. Pseudopregnancies are common, and many staff hours are expended preparing […]

Fecal steroid hormone analysis as an indicator of reproductive function in the cheetah

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430130204.abs Techniques were developed and validated to measure fecal estrogen and progesterone concentrations of the female cheetah. Fecal samples were collected from seven mature females. Cheetahs were monitored before mating and continued until parturition. Four females had normal pregnancies, one conceived but the pregnancy resulted in spontaneous abortion, one was mated but apparently did […]

Reproductive biology and management of captive black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430100502.abs A captive breeding program is being conducted with black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), an endangered species. Results of 5 years of study are reported. Simple, but specialized, nontraumatic handling techniques allowed assessment of reproductive status with minimal stress, which was important in breeding management. Black-footed ferrets are sexually mature and may successfully reproduce in […]

Captive reproduction in Heermann’s kangaroo rat, Dipodomys heermanni

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430100205.abs This paper summarizes 8 years of captive breeding experience with the endangered Morro Bay kangaroo rat (Dipodomys heermanni morroensis) and the non-endangered Lompoc kangaroo rat (D. h. arenae), a related form used as a surrogate. Kangaroo rats are aggressive and must be caged individually; copulation can only take place when the female is […]