Reproductive endocrine monitoring of elephants: An essential tool for assisting captive management

Considerable information now is available about the basic reproductive biology of elephants, especially females. However, as important as this knowledge is, it no longer is enough to simply compile it into a database. The potential exists for using endocrine monitoring techniques to solve real problems. This review summarizes our current knowledge of elephant endocrinology and […]

Results of a second survey to assess the reproductive status of female Asian and African elephants in North America

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20238.abs Surveys are being conducted to monitor the reproductive health of elephants managed by the TAG/SSP. This study summarizes results of a 2005 survey and compares data to one conducted in 2002. Surveys were returned for 100% and 79.0% of Asian and African elephants, respectively. Of those, 79.3% of Asian and 92.1% of African […]

Ovarian cycle of the captive formosan gem-faced civets (Paguma larvata taivana)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20115.abs Formosan gem-faced civets are classified to be endemic sub-species of Paguma larvata in Taiwan. Little about their reproductive physiology has been reported. This study was designed to characterize the ovarian activity throughout the year and define ovarian cycle length and the lengths of its component phases. Serum samples were collected for enzyme immunoassay […]

Vaginal cytology and vulvar swelling as indicators of impending estrus and ovulation in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10110.abs The giant panda is critically endangered in its native habitat, which is continually depreciated by the pressure of human population growth, and the small captive population is not yet self-sustaining. Female giant pandas are seasonally monoestrous with spontaneous ovulation. Precise monitoring of the estrous cycle to pinpoint the time of ovulation is critical […]

Reproductive endocrine responses to photoperiod and exogenous gonadotropins in the pallas’ cat (Otocolobus manul)

Abstract Fecal samples were collected for 14–26 months from three male and six female Pallas’ cats (Otocolobus manul) to examine gonadal steroidogenic activity in response to changes in photoperiod and treatment with exogenous gonadotropins. Females exhibited a seasonal anestrus from May–December, excreting consistently low concentrations of fecal estrogens (overall mean, 50.2±8.5 ng/g). During the breeding […]

Reproductive steroid hormones and ovarian activity in felids of the Leopardus genus

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1010.abs Reproductive endocrine patterns were characterized in female ocelots (Leopardus pardalis; n = 3), tigrinas (Leopardus tigrinus; n = 2), and margays (Leopardus wiedii; n = 2) housed in captivity in southern Brazil. Females were maintained as singletons and exposed to natural fluctuations in photoperiod. Cyclic changes in ovarian steroids were monitored by analyzing […]

Active immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone in female white-tailed deer

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1999)18:53.3.CO;2-V The ability of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) immunization to disrupt estrous cycles in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was tested. Four does were each injected subcutaneously with 1 mg of a GnRH analog-ovalbumin conjugate, using a diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-dextran solution as the adjuvant. Control deer (n = 4) received ovalbumin alone in DEAE-dextran. The immunization […]

Evaluation of progesterone and 20-oxo-progestagens in the plasma of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1997)16:53.3.CO;2-D The corpus luteum of African elephants produces high amounts of 5α-reduced progesterone metabolites (5α-pregnane-3,20-dione and 5-α-pregnane-3α-ol-20-one), whereas progesterone itself is quantitatively less important, and plasma levels of progesterone during the estrous cycle in elephants are considerably lower than those of other mammals. The objective of this study was to compare the concentration of […]

Secretory patterns of serum prolactin in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants during different reproductive states: Comparison with concentrations in a noncycling African elephant

Serum prolactin was quantified in adult female Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants during various reproductive states and the profiles compared to that in a noncycling African elephant. In reproductively normal elephants, there was no effect of season, estrous cycle stage, or lactational status on quantitative or qualitative prolactin secretion (P > 0.05), […]

Reproductive biology of captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in Saudi Arabia

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1996)15:43.3.CO;2-P Reproductive data on captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) were collected from June 1986 through April 1992 at the National Wildlife Research Center (Taif, Saudi Arabia). Oryx females are polyestrous. The estrous cycle averaged 22 days and mean gestation length was 260 ± 5.5 days (S.D). Sex ratio at birth was unbiased and mean […]