Anuran gender identification by fecal steroid analysis

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20077.abs This study tested the hypothesis that steroid hormone metabolites can be measured in anuran feces and their concentrations used to identify the sex of adults. Fecal samples from American toads, Bufo americanus, and boreal toads, B. boreas boreas, were extracted using ethyl acetate, and the concentrations of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone metabolites were […]

Estrogen and LH dynamics during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle in the Asian elephant

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10098.abs Pituitary and corpus luteum hormone patterns throughout the elephant estrous cycle have been well characterized. By contrast, analysis of follicular maturation by measurement of circulating estrogens has been uninformative. This study tested the ability of a urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide radioimmunoassay to noninvasively assess follicular development during the nonluteal phase of the elephant estrous cycle, […]

Changes in urinary concentrations of total estrogen and pregnanediol in a female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from 1991 to 2000

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10105.abs Total estrogen and pregnanediol concentrations in urine samples from one female giant panda were measured from 1991–2000. This female experienced her first estrus at the age of 5 years 3 months in 1991. From 1992 on, estrous behavior was observed every year between January and June, and the peak values of total estrogen […]

Endocrine monitoring and its application to the management of the giant panda

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10108.abs Urinary estrogens (n=10) and progestins (n=4) were monitored in a total of 10 giant panda females. Estrogens were evaluated with two different immunoassays during the estrous period. The two different methodologies gave similar hormonal profiles, but different quantitative results due to differences in the crossreactivity of the different assay systems. High-pressure liquid chromatography […]

Comparison of different drying and storage methods on quantifiable concentrations of fecal steroids in the cheetah

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10036.abs Fecal steroid analysis is a powerful tool that can provide important information on the health, physiology, and reproductive status of nondomestic species. However, studying free-ranging animals requires that feces be stored and transported from the collection site to the laboratory in a manner that prevents degradation or alteration of steroid metabolites. To determine […]

Reproductive endocrine patterns in captive female and male red wolves (Canis rufus) assessed by fecal and serum hormone analysis

Abstract Reproductive steroid profiles in female (n=13) and male (n=5) red wolves (Canis rufus) were characterized in fecal samples collected during the breeding season (December—May) and over a 1 year period, respectively. Blood samples from females (n=12) also were collected during the periovulatory period for luteinizing hormone (LH) and steroid analysis. High performance liquid chromatography […]

Hormonal and behavioral relationships during estrus in the giant panda

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10027.abs Nonlactating female giant pandas experience a single estrus during the spring mating season. Although both hormonal and behavioral aspects of estrus have been reported on captive females, little is known about the relationship between them. Data were collected on a single captive female during three successive seasons, revealing a high degree of regularity […]

Efficacy of levonorgestrel when administered as an irradiated, slow-release injectable matrix for feline contraception

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1039.abs Reliable and safe methods of reversible contraception are needed for use in zoo felids. The efficacy of levonorgestrel (LNG) as a contraceptive, when delivered as a cesium-irradiated, slow-release, injectable matrix, was tested in domestic cats as a model for exotic cats. An increase (P = 0.0017) in body weight was observed in treated […]

Fecal corticoid metabolite measurement in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1997)16:23.3.CO;2-P This longitudinal study addresses the relationship of cortisol excretion to ovarian activity in captive female cheetahs. A radioimmunoassay was developed and validated to measure corticoid metabolite concentrations in feces. A restraint experiment was used to demonstrate that fecal cortisol is detectable following stressful episodes. In studies of 7 females, fecal cortisol output indicated […]

Pregnancy diagnosis in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) by salivary hormone analysis

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1996)15:13.3.CO;2-L Saliva samples collected from 12 black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) were analyzed for 20 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone-like and total estrogen immunoreactivity. Five nonpregnant, two conception, and nine pregnancy intervals were monitored. HPLC co-chromatography of immunoreactive free steroid components in saliva indicated that one of three immunoreactive progestin components eluted with 20 alpha-hydroxypreg-4-en-3-one, whereas the single major […]