Nutrient composition of plants consumed by black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, in the Betampona Natural Reserve, Madagascar

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20267.abs The purpose of this study was to quantify the concentrations of crude protein, fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, nonstructural carbohydrates, and gross energy in plant foods consumed by wild black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and selenium concentrations […]

Energy and mineral nutrition and water intake in the captive Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20032.abs In the captive Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), two disease complexes with a high incidence—chronic foot problems and uterine leiomyomas—may be linked to excess body weight (BW). In this study, intake and digestion trials were conducted (by means of 7-day weigh-backs, and 5-day total fecal collections, respectively) with 11 Indian rhinoceroses at four zoological […]

Relationships among nutrition and reproduction and relevance for wild animals

This review discusses aspects of feeding ecology, nutrition, and dietary husbandry that are particularly relevant to reproductive success in wild animals. Emphasis has been placed on recently published literature. Special attention has been given to requirements for energy and protein and the unique roles of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, copper, […]

How energy and coavailable foods affect forage selection by the western grey kangaroo

We aimed to identify chemical properties of plant species that correlate with their palatability, quantify a common currency of forage for the western grey kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus, and test the impact of frequency of occurrence on food selection. Of 24 plant species exposed to kangaroos, those high in salts and tannins were avoided, whereas those […]

A system for predicting energy and protein requirements of wild ruminants

Abstract Wild ruminants require energy and protein for the normal function. I developed a system for predicting these energy and protein requirements across ruminant species and life stages. This system defines requirements on the basis of net energy (NE), net protein (NP), and ruminally degraded protein (RDP). Total NE and NP requirements are calculated as […]

Behavior, energy and fitness

Fitness relations in behavioral energetics can be studied using the optimality approach (cost-benefit analysis), correlational analysis of selection, the experimental approach and the comparative method, as well as other approaches. These approaches ask different questions, have different virtues and different deficiencies. By using the approaches in combination we could gain new understanding of the relationships […]

Proximate composition of milk of the bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus) in comparison to other African bovids and to hand-rearing formulas

African bovids represent a highly diverse group with divergent neonatal care strategies. The extent to which their milks reflect this diversity is poorly understood. We analyzed milk of the bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus) to compare its composition to milks of other African bovids and to evaluate bongo milk replacement formulas. Milk samples from three individuals (0 […]

Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers’ standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques […]