Prolonged ovarian acyclicity is associated with a higher likelihood of developing hyperprolactinemia in zoo female African elephants

Hyperprolactinemia is a common disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and a cause of ovarian dysfunction in women. Currently, over half of non-cycling African elephant females in North America also are hyperprolactinemic, suggesting a similar link between these two conditions may exist. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between acyclicity and prolactin […]

Small effective population sizes of two remnant ocelot populations (Leopardus pardalis albescens) in the United States

Threatened populations are vulnerable to the effects of genetic drift and inbreeding, particularly when gene flow is low and the effective population size is small. Estimates of effective population size (Ne) provide important information on the status of endangered populations that have experienced severe fragmentation and serve as indicators of genetic viability. Genetic data from […]

Phylogenetic relationships of ocelot (Leopardus pardalis albescens) populations from the Tamaulipan biotic province and implications for recovery

The remaining populations of ocelot (Leopardus pardalis albescens) in the United States are reduced to 2 isolated populations in southern Texas, with the next closest populations occurring in central Tamaulipas, Mexico. The species is listed as endangered, and recovery of populations in Texas eventually might require translocations from larger source populations. We sequenced the mitochondrial […]

Serum testosterone in captive male rhinoceros: Effects of season, age, stress, and sociosexual environment

All rhinoceros species are in some degree of endangerment. Understanding the reproductive physiology of rhinoceros species will help in management decisions with both free-ranging and captive populations. In mammalian species studied, testosterone plays a key role in spermatogenesis and libido. Testosterone concentrations, depending on the species, may vary according to age, season, social status, stress […]

The effects of rearing method on social behaviors of mentored, captive-reared juvenile California condors

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20151.abs Puppet-reared and parent-reared captive-bred California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) juveniles were studied before their release into the wild. Behavioral data were collected during social interactions within two cohorts of juveniles (N = 11) and their adult mentors (N = 5). The purposes of this study were to (1) document the social behaviors of mentored […]

Egg size, fertility, hatchability, and chick survivability in captive California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20015.abs California condors are one of the most endangered species native to the mainland United States and are subject of intense effort regarding captive breeding and reintroduction. We analyzed 20 years of California condor egg records from the wild and from three captive propagation facilities for fertility, hatchability, and chick survivability, along with changes […]

Effects of early rearing experience on adult behavior and nesting in captive Hawaiian crows (Corvus hawaiiensis)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10024.abs Behavioral data were collected during the breeding season on eight pairs of Hawaiian crows (Corvus hawaiiensis) housed at two facilities on different islands. All data were collected from videocamera time-lapse recordings of the nesting platforms. Behaviors included frequency of nest cup manipulation, percent of time spent on nest, allopreening, play, and stereotypy. The […]

Nonsurgical embryo transfer in the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah): Birth of a live offspring

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430100106.abs The objective of this project was to determine if modifications of methods of estrous synchronization, superovulation, embryo recovery, and transfer used successfully in other ungulates, both domestic and nondomestic, could be applied to scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). Donors were two parous females and recipients were one parous and two nulliparous females that were […]

Animal welfare in the musk deer

The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) is a primitive ruminant living in the remote high Himalayas. The male deer possesses a musk gland specialized for the production of musk which is one of the most valuable scented animal products—it is more expensive than gold. The deer have been commercially exploited for centuries for their precious […]

The effectiveness of environmental enrichment on reducing stereotypic behaviour in two captive vicugna (Vicugna vicugna)

Environmental enrichment by increasing foraging behaviour and providing food item choice are widely practised and generally accepted as effective methods for reducing stereotypic behaviour in captive animals. In this study, the effectiveness of increasing foraging patch choice and food item choice on reducing motor stereotypy in two captive vicugna were examined. For the purposes of […]