Boldness at the nest predicts foraging and diving behaviour of female but not male African penguins

Optimal foraging theory suggests that the environment (e.g. distribution of resource patches) will shape an individual’s decision to exploit the resource available or explore other locations. Together with the environment and the social context, individual characteristics such as personality have been recently discovered to affect behaviour, offering new insights in the field of behavioural ecology. […]

First Disclosure and Preliminary Investigation of a Liquid Released from the Ears of African Elephants

This report is the first documentation, both behaviorally and chemically, of a phenomenon observed among African elephants (Loxodonta africana) whereby a sudden, often stream-like discharge of liquid is seen from the auricular orifice. During this initial investigation, multiple samples of the fluid have been collected for analysis of physical properties and components. Trace organic chemicals […]

Skewed birth sex ratio and premature mortality in elephants

Sex allocation theories predict equal offspringnumber of both sexes unless differential investment is required or some competition exists. Left undisturbed, elephants reproduce well and in approximately even numbers in the wild.We report an excess of males are born and substantial juvenile mortality occurs, perinatally, in captivity. Studbook data on captive births (CB, n = 487) […]

Genetic diversity in captive and wild Matschie’s tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) from Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea, based on mtDNA control region sequences

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20222.abs The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Matschie’s tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) population is at a critical point for assessing long-term viability. This population, established from 19 genetically uncharacterized D. matschiei, has endured a founder effect because only four individuals contributed the majority of offspring. The highly variable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region […]

Evaluation of the enteric microflora of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20125.abs The enteric flora of captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) has not been well described, despite its potential importance in the understanding of both the normal condition of the intestinal physiology of these animals and the altered colonization within disease states in these birds. Nineteen whooping cranes and 23 […]

Predicting release success of captive-reared loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus) using pre-release behavior

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20067.abs We assessed whether behavioral markers could be used to evaluate pair compatibility and predict pair bond success of captive-reared San Clemente loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi) released into the wild. Potential breeding pairs of shrikes were introduced at the Zoological Society of San Diego’s captive-breeding facility and then moved to release cages located […]

Iodine deficiency affects hatchability of endangered captive kaki (Black Stilt, Himantopus novaezelandiae)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10123.abs A significant increase in hatching and late-incubation deaths during two breeding seasons in a captive population of endangered black stilts (kaki, Himantopus novaezelandiae) prompted an investigation into the potential role of iodine deficiency. During the 1997 and 1998 breeding seasons, the survival rate of captive-laid eggs during artificial incubation and hatching was lower […]

Evaluation of the genetic management of the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10089.abs Empirical support for the genetic management strategies employed by captive breeding and reintroduction programs is scarce. We evaluated the genetic management plan for the highly endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) developed by the American Zoo and Aquarium Associations (AZA) as a part of the species survival plan (SSP). We contrasted data collected from […]

Photoperiod manipulation to increase the productivity of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) and Siberian polecats (M. eversmanii)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10066.abs The endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) reproduces naturally in the spring. The Black-Footed Ferret Recovery Program would benefit from increased productivity in the captive population by manipulating photoperiod and temperature to create three artificial cycles in 1½ years. In the present study the photoperiod was set at 8 hr light:16 hr dark for […]

Is the embryo culture system useful for collecting primordial germ cells from endangered avian embryos?

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10030.abs The development of artificial means to conserve endangered avian species appears to be urgently needed. Procedures developed in recent years for experimental embryology with primordial germ cells (PGCs) may help prevent the extinction of endangered species. To this end, we examined the embryo culture system (ECS) for collection of PGCs using chick embryos […]