The relationship between housing and social rant on cortisol, Beta endorphin and dynorphin secretion in sows

Endogenous opioids and glucocorticoids may be useful welfare indicators in pigs. Measures of plasma cortisol were carried out in plasma samples collected hourly, from 8:00 to 17:00 h from High Ranking (HR) (n=5) Middle Ranking (MR) (n=7) and Low Ranking (LR) (n=4) group housed sows and from eight Stall Housed Sows (SHS). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) […]

Brain opioid receptors in relation to stereotypies, inactivity, and housing in sows

When animals encounter difficult conditions, endogenous opioids are often released and may help in coping with the difficulties. In sows, prolonged confinement results in behavior abnormalities: high levels of stereotypies or excessive inactivity and unresponsiveness. The possibilities of causal links between endogenous opioids and these behavioral indicators of poor welfare have been raised. Mu receptor […]