Social and environmental factors affecting fecal glucocorticoids in wild, female white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus)

Abstract Assessing glucocorticoid levels in free-ranging nonhuman primates provides a means to determine the social and environmental stress load for individuals. We investigated the effect of four proximate variables—reproductive state, season, male rank stability, and dominance rank—on the level of fecal glucocorticoids (cortisol metabolites) in eight adult female white-faced capuchin monkeys in Costa Rica. Reproductive […]