The neurobiology of positive emotions

Compared to the study of negative emotions such as fear, the neurobiology of positive emotional processes and the associated positive affect (PA) states has only recently received scientific attention. Biological theories conceptualize PA as being related to (i) signals indicating that bodies are returning to equilibrium among those studying homeostasis, (ii) utility estimation among those […]

Social novelty increases tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the extended olfactory amygdala of female prairie voles

The monogamous social behaviors of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) require olfactory inputs, which are processed by the posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd) and principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBST). The male prairie vole MeApd and pBST contain hundreds of cells densely immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir). Female prairie voles have relatively few of these […]

Social status differentiates rapid neuroendocrine responses to restraint stress

Male Anolis carolinensis that win aggressive interactions mobilize neuroendocrine responses to social stress more rapidly than defeated lizards. We initially examined temporal patterns of neuroendocrine response to restraint stress in lizards of unknown status, and then investigated whether winning males respond more rapidly to this non-social stressor. Size-matched male pairs interacted to establish social status, […]

Effects of haloperidol, a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on reward-related behaviors in laying hens

In order to investigate the involvement of dopaminergic transmission in the regulation of reward-related behaviors in laying hens, the effects of systemic injections of dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg s.c.) 30 min prior to a conditioned cue signaling a reward were tested and compared to the effects of a saline injection. […]

Sex differences in the effects of two stress paradigms on dopaminergic neurotransmission

Sex differences in behavioral and neurobiological responses to stress are considered to modulate the prevalence of some psychiatric disorders, including major depression. In the present study, we compared dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior in response to two different stress paradigms, the Forced Swim Test (FST) and the Chronic Mild Stress (CMS). Male and female rats were […]

Neurological and stress related effects of shifting obese rats from a palatable diet to chow and lean rats from chow to a palatable diet

Rats exposed to an energy rich, cafeteria diet overeat and become obese. The present experiment examined the neural and behavioural effects of shifting obese rats from this diet to chow and lean rats from chow to the cafeteria diet. Two groups of male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 24) were fed either highly palatable cafeteria […]

Involvement of the neurosteroid 7α-hydroxypregnenolone in the courtship behavior of the male newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

Reproductive behavior in amphibians, as in other vertebrate animals, is controlled by multiple hormones. A neurosteroid, 7α-hydroxypregnenolone, has recently been found to enhance locomotor activity in the male newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Here, we show that this neurosteroid is also involved in enhancing the expression of courtship behavior. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 7α-hydroxypregnenolone enhanced courtship behavior […]

‘Roid rage in rats? Testosterone effects on aggressive motivation, impulsivity and tyrosine hydroxylase

Abstract In humans and animals, anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) increase aggression, but the underlying behavioral mechanisms are unclear. AAS may increase the motivation to fight. Alternatively, AAS may increase impulsive behavior, consistent with the popular image of ‘roid rage. To test this, adolescent male rats were treated chronically with testosterone (7.5 mg/kg) or vehicle and tested […]

Effects of dopamine agonists on calling behavior in the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea

Abstract Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter involved in social behaviors, such as courtship and pair-bonding. In the green tree frog (Hyla cinerea), calling behavior is the primary social behavior used for mate attraction, and is critical for the reproductive success of the species. Our study examined how DA influences advertisement calling behavior of the […]

Evidence for the role of personality in stereotypy predisposition

It is often suggested that stereotypic behaviour represents a coping response to suboptimal environmental conditions. However, individuals of many species show different coping styles depending on their personality type. Therefore, personality is an important consideration when investigating why only certain individuals become stereotypic under suboptimal conditions. Thus, the aim of this review is to explore […]