A retrospective study of mortality in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in UK zoos

IUCN currently classifies the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) as “Least Concern,” however, across its six to nine subspecies, some isolated populations are classified as “Endangered” or “Critically Endangered.” Despite this and the species’ relative ubiquity in European zoos, a retrospective mortality study of a captive population has not previously been performed. By analyzing necropsy reports, […]

The prevalence of osteoarthritis in wild versus captive great ape skeletons

This research examined whether the prevalence and skeletal distribution of osteoarthritis (OA) differed between wild and captive great ape skeletons. A secondary, but important, aspect of this research focused on the development of improved aging techniques based on methods commonly used on human osteological samples. Tests were conducted pertaining to the effect that wild versus […]

Ultraviolet light and reptiles, amphibians

Ultraviolet lighting is integral for the growth and maintenance of many reptile and amphibian species. But providing an adequate source of light can be challenging. Many disease processes seen by veterinarians are attributed to ultraviolet lighting deficiencies. In mammals, disease due to excess ultraviolet lighting has been noted, and some veterinarians feel this may be […]

The value of infrared thermography for research on mammals: previous applications and future directions

1. Infrared thermography (IRT) involves the precise measurement of infrared radiation which allows surface temperature to be determined according to simple physical laws. This review describes previous applications of IRT in studies of thermal physiology, veterinary diagnosis of disease or injury and population surveys on domestic and wild mammals. 2. IRT is a useful technique […]

Causes of mortality in captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10121.abs Cotton-top tamarins have been housed in captivity in the United States for over five decades. These animals initially were managed in biomedical and research facilities, and more recently have been kept in zoos as well. Although the causes of mortality in captive cotton-top tamarins have been a topic of investigation for biomedical colonies, […]

Behaviour and welfare in relation to pathology

Behaviour is an important way of adapting to disease for individuals and selective pressures resulting from disease have had major consequences for the evolution of behaviour. Behaviour, adrenal and other physiological responses, immunological responses and brain activity all help in coping with disease. Health is an important part of welfare and any pathology implies some […]

Single large or several small? Population fragmentation in the captive management of endangered species

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1998)17:63.3.CO;2-V Captive populations of endangered species are typically maintained effectively as single random-mating populations by translocating individuals between institutions. Genetic, disease, and cost considerations, however, suggest that this may not be the optimal management strategy. Genetic theory predicts that a pooled population derived from several small isolated populations will have greater genetic diversity, less […]

Shigella flexneri: A practical review for zoo personnel

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1998)17:23.3.CO;2-7 Shigella flexneri is a highly contagious bacterium capable of producing a variety of disease syndromes, ranging from diarrhea to death in all primates, including humans. Although of importance to zoological institutions, relevant information regarding this pathogen has not been readily available to zoo personnel. The medical and veterinary literature was reviewed. Epidemiology, species […]

A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis

Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current science of animal welfare is less scientific than […]

Group size, cage shelf level, and emotionality in non-obese diabetic mice: Impact on onset and incidence of IDDM

We hypothesized that differential housing, shown to influence emotionality and health in infectious and neoplastic disease, would influence onset/incidence of diabetes in an autoimmune animal model of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Non-obese diabetic mice were assigned to same-sex groups of one, five, or eight animals/cage, counterbalanced across shelf level by sex and group. During weekly […]