Preliminary observations of an unusual mouth interaction between beluga calves (Delphinapterus leucas)

Although many animals, including odontocetes, exhibit interactions involving mouths (e.g., mouthing, nuzzling, biting), a limited number of animals display mouth-to-mouth social interactions that involve mutual coordination and collaboration. The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly a spontaneous and unexpected mouth-to-mouth social interaction between beluga calves in human care during their first year of […]

Identification of fear behaviors shown by puppies in response to nonsocial stimuli

Understanding fear behavior in puppies is important for dog welfare, prevention of behavioral issues, and ensuring research assessments are accurate. Further research is necessary to determine which specific behaviors puppies show when they are fearful and whether these behaviors are similar to those seen in older dogs. We assessed which puppy behaviors are associated with […]

Social Structure and Helping Behavior in Captive Elephants

Selective pressures on individual behavior serve to mold social structure and subsequent levels of cooperation in social species, including elephants. Adult Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants have complex social societies that differ markedly between the sexes. Elephant social structure and cooperative behavior may have evolved in part to prepare young elephants to […]

Developing models for mother–infant behaviour in Black rhinoceros and Reticulated giraffe Diceros bicornis michaeli and Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata at Brookfield Zoo, Illinois

For over a decade the behaviours of mothers and newborn calves of Black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis michaeli and Reticulated giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata have been observed at Brookfield Zoo during the critical first few weeks post-partum. Consistent patterns were seen for individuals within species, allowing models of time budgets, including ranges of variability surrounding each […]

Environmental enrichment promotes improved spatial abilities and enhanced dendritic growth in the rat

An enriched environment consists of a combination of enhanced social relations, physical exercise and interactions with non-social stimuli that leads to behavioral and neuronal modifications. In the present study, we analyzed the behavioral effects of environmental complexity on different facets of spatial function, and we assessed dendritic arborisation and spine density in a cortical area […]

Behavioural processes affecting development: Tinbergen’s fourth question comes of age

Interest in relationships between behaviour and development has been spurred by research on related topics, including phenotypic plasticity, parental effects, extragenetic inheritance, individual differences and trait syndromes. Here, I consider several emerging areas of research in the interface between behaviour and development, with a focus on behavioural processes that are likely to affect the development […]

Sleep deprivation elevates plasma corticosterone levels in neonatal rats

Plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured after short periods of sleep deprivation in rats at postnatal days 12, 16, 20, and 24. There was an age-dependent increase in basal CORT levels and sleep deprivation significantly elevated CORT at all ages compared to non-sleep deprived controls. The levels of CORT after sleep deprivation in P16, P20 […]

A survey of the management and development of captive African elephant (Loxodonta africana) calves: birth to three months of age

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20195.abs We used four surveys to collect information about the birth, physical growth, and behavioral development of 12 African elephant calves born in captivity. The management of the birth process and neonatal care involved a variety of standard procedures. All of the calves were born at night, between 7PM and 7AM. The calves showed […]

Birth and simultaneous rearing of two litters in a pack of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20111.abs Two female African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in a pack of 10 animals at the Bronx Zoo gave birth to litters of nine and seven pups within a 2-day period. Two pups from the litter of seven died before they were 2 weeks old, but the other 14 survived past weaning. Litter size, […]

Growth and development of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) at Healesville Sanctuary, Victoria, Australia

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10092.abs A study of the growth and development of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was undertaken on a litter born at Healesville Sanctuary in Healesville, Victoria, Australia. Measurements of crown–rump length, head length, and head width were recorded every week from birth. Body weight was recorded weekly once the joeys were detached from the […]