Withholding information in semifree-ranging Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana)

The ability of Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) to deceive partners about the location of hidden food was investigated in 4 males belonging to a group raised in a 2-acre park. Before releasing subjects in the search task, the experimenter prompted 1 of the subjects to observe where the bait was hidden. The authors found that […]

Are Animals Capable of Deception or Empathy? Implications for Animal Consciousness and Animal Welfare

Awareness of the self and awareness of others are difficult faculties to define. Part of the problem lies in the wide range of abilities that involve various aspects of awareness. Some of the most commonly studied abilities focus on the self-awareness of the individual. These abilities range from the capacity to distinguish self from non-self […]

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) conceal visual and auditory information from others

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) competed with a human for food. The human sat inside a booth, with 1 piece of food to her left and 1 to her right, which she could retract from her chimpanzee competitor’s reach as needed. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees could approach either side of the booth unseen but then had to […]