Making inferences about the location of hidden food: Social dog, causal ape

Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and great apes from the genus Pan were tested on a series of object choice tasks. In each task, the location of hidden food was indicated for subjects by some kind of communicative, behavioral, or physical cue. On the basis of differences in the ecologies of these 2 genera, as well […]

Nonenculturated Orangutans’ (Pongo pygmaeus) Use of Experimenter-Given Manual and Facial Cues in an Object-Choice Task

Several experiments have been performed, to examine whether nonhuman primates are able to make use of experimenter-given manual and facial (visual) cues to direct their attention to a baited object. Contrary to the performance of prosimians and monkeys, great apes repeatedly have shown task efficiency in experiments such as these. However, many great ape subjects […]

Relative pitch perception in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata)

To investigate whether monkeys perceive relative pitch, the author trained 3 Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) to detect changes from rising to falling contours of 3-tone sequences. Tone sequences were presented serially with transposition, so monkeys were urged to attend to cues other than the absolute frequency of a component tone. Results from probe tests with […]

Contrasting activity patterns of two related octopus species, Octopus macropus and Octopus vulgaris

Octopus macropus and Octopus vulgaris have overlapping habitats and are exposed to similar temporal changes. Whereas the former species is described as nocturnal in the field, there are conflicting reports about the activity time of the latter one. To compare activity patterns, the authors tested both species in the laboratory. Octopuses were exposed to a […]

Object Permanence in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

A series of 9 search tasks corresponding to the Piagetian Stages 3-6 of object permanence were administered to 11 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Success rates varied strongly among tasks and marmosets, but the performances of most subjects were above chance level on the majority of tasks of visible and invisible displacements. Although up to 24 […]

Bottlenosed Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Comprehend the Referent of Both Static and Dynamic Human Gazing and Pointing in an Object-Choice Task

The authors tested 2 bottlenosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for their understanding of human-directed gazing or pointing in a 2-alternative object-choice task. A dolphin watched a human informant either gazing at or pointing toward 1 of 2 laterally placed objects and was required to perform a previously indicated action to that object. Both static and dynamic […]

Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) numerical abilities: Addition and further experiments on a zero-like concept

A Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus), able to quantify 6 or fewer item sets (including heterogeneous subsets) by using English labels (I. M. Pepperberg, 1994), was tested on addition of quantities involving 0-6. He was, without explicit training, asked, “How many total X?” for 2 sequentially presented collections (e.g., of variously sized jelly beans or nuts) […]

Modified Prenatal Sensory Stimulation Influences Postnatal Behavioral and Perceptual Responsiveness in Bobwhite Quail Chicks (Colinus virginianus)

Asynchronous bimodal stimulation during prenatal development elicits higher levels of behavioral and physiological arousal in precocial avian embryos than does unimodal sensory stimulation. To investigate whether the increased arousal associated with prenatal bimodal stimulation has enduring effects into postnatal development, bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) embryos received no supplemental stimulation, unimodal auditory stimulation, or bimodal (audiovisual) […]

Obey or Not Obey? Dogs (Canis familiaris) Behave Differently in Response to Attentional States of Their Owners

Sixteen domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were tested in a familiar context in a series of 1-min trials on how well they obeyed after being told by their owner to lie down. Food was used in 1/3 of all trials, and during the trial the owner engaged in 1 of 5 activities. The dogs behaved differently […]

A Gray Seal’s (Halichoerus grypus) Responses to Experimenter-Given Pointing and Directional Cues

A gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) was trained to touch a target on its left or right by responding to pointing signals. The authors then tested whether the seal would be able to generalize spontaneously to altered signals. It responded correctly to center pointing and head turning, center upper body turning, and off-center pointing but not […]