Collection planning for the next 100 years: What will we commit to save in zoos and aquariums?

The “sustainability crisis” in zoos and aquariums has been a sobering reminder of how limited our resources are for maintaining viable populations of species threatened with extinction. This, combined with increasing concern among the public about the value of zoos and aquariums, suggests that the zoological profession should engage in a thorough re-examination of our […]

Declining Amphibian Populations: What Is the Next Step?


From the Cover: Amphibian and reptile declines over 35 years at La Selva, Costa Rica

Amphibians stand at the forefront of a global biodiversity crisis. More than one-third of amphibian species are globally threatened, and over 120 species have likely suffered global extinction since 1980. Most alarmingly, many rapid declines and extinctions are occurring in pristine sites lacking obvious adverse effects of human activities. The causes of these ‘‘enigmatic’’ declines […]

Statement and Resolutions on the Role of Captive Facilities in In Situ African Elephant Conservation

The IUCN Species Survival Commission African Elephant Specialist Group (AfESG) membership, at its general meeting in Burkina Faso in January 1998, debated the role played by captive facilities in the conservation of the African elephant. The Group areed on the following:

Mind and Movement: Meeting the well being of elephants


Skewed birth sex ratio and premature mortality in elephants

Sex allocation theories predict equal offspringnumber of both sexes unless differential investment is required or some competition exists. Left undisturbed, elephants reproduce well and in approximately even numbers in the wild.We report an excess of males are born and substantial juvenile mortality occurs, perinatally, in captivity. Studbook data on captive births (CB, n = 487) […]

Social Structure and Helping Behavior in Captive Elephants

Selective pressures on individual behavior serve to mold social structure and subsequent levels of cooperation in social species, including elephants. Adult Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants have complex social societies that differ markedly between the sexes. Elephant social structure and cooperative behavior may have evolved in part to prepare young elephants to […]

Wild Tigers in Captivity: A Study of the Effects of the Captive Environment on Tiger Behavior

Humans maintain wild animals in zoological parks for the purposes of education, conservation, research, and recreation. However, abnormal behaviors may develop in animals housed in human-made environments, if those environments do not allow them to carry out their natural behaviors (such as swimming, climbing, stalking, and predation). Captive environments in zoological parks often do not […]

Integrating Conservation and Agricultural Production: A Case Study in the United Kingdom


Pilot Study Investigation of the Bongo Antelope Population and Forest Clearings of the Mombongo Region, Northern Congo