Variation in stereotypic behavior related to restraint in circus elephants

Abstract 10.1002/1098-2361(2000)19:33.3.CO;2-Z The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of penning and chaining on circus elephant behavior. The behaviors of 10 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and three African elephants (Loxodonta africana) were videotaped for at least 24 hours at each of six performance locations. At four of these locations, the elephants were […]

Prevalence of stereotypies and its possible causes among captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Tamil Nadu, India

Animals in captivity are often confined in small barren enclosures, preventing adequate exercise, and socialization with conspecifics. Captivity is also known for depriving young individuals’ association with maternal relatives by weaning away from their mothers’ earlier than what their peers experience in free-living populations. Such husbandry practices often lead to various welfare problems among captive […]