Reported livestock guarding dog-wildlife interactions: Implications for conservation and animal welfare

Livestock depredation by carnivores is a key cause of detrimental human-wildlife interactions around the world. Recently, the use of livestock-guarding dogs (LGDs) to reduce livestock depredation has been challenged in terms of their impact on wild animal welfare and survival, but the prevalence of LGD-wildlife interactions is poorly understood. Using data for 225 LGDs on […]

Decision making in plant selection during the faecal-marking behaviour of wild wolves

The function of wolf, Canis lupus, faeces in chemical communication and the selection of raised and conspicuous substrates to increase their effectiveness as visual scent marks are well documented. Therefore, I hypothesized that faecal marks are not placed randomly on plants, and that wolves will select specific plants according to characteristics that enhance faeces as […]

The effect of randomly altering the time and location of feeding on the behaviour of captive coyotes (Canis latrans)

Captive carnivores appear highly susceptible to the negative effects of predictable feeding routines. Current research and reviews suggest feeding unpredictably may increase species typical behaviour, but positive results have been limited to a few species. Our objectives were to determine whether randomly altering the time and location of feeding increased species typical behaviour, or affected […]

Captivity effects on wide-ranging carnivores

Some species — ring-tailed lemurs and snow leopards, for example — apparently thrive in captivity, whereas others, such as Asian elephants and polar bears, are prone to problems that include poor health, repetitive stereotypic behaviour and breeding difficulties. Here we investigate this previously unexplained variation in captive animals’ welfare by focusing on caged carnivores, and […]

Movement Patterns and Food Habits of Four Sympatric Carnivore Species in Belize, Central America

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Nutritional composition and digestibility by ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) of whole animals and a commercial diet

Abstract Felids are adapted to eat whole prey, but in North American zoos are usually fed processed diets based on muscle meat. We analyzed proximate nutrient composition and digestibility by ocelots of a commercial processed diet and whole animals of five species. The processed diet did not differ significantly from the whole animals in proximate […]

Proportion of soft tissue in selected bone cuts fed primarily as enrichments to large carnivores

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20141.abs Zoos often offer large bones or cuts of meat containing bone (bone cuts) to carnivores to provide oral stimulation and behavioral enrichment. Because of its abrasive action, the act of chewing on a bone can increase the oral health of large felids as well as provide an enriching activity. Unfortunately, because the quantity […]

Chronicle of a carnivore at the brink of extinction

Energy digestibility of giant pandas on bamboo-only and on supplemented diets

Abstract Endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are bears (Family Ursidae), within the order Carnivora. They specialize on an herbivorous diet of bamboo yet retain a gastrointestinal tract typical of their carnivorous ancestry. The evolutionary constraints of their digestive tract result in a low extraction efficiency from bamboo (

A Proposed Ethogram of Large-Carnivore Predatory Behavior, Exemplified by the Wolf

Although predatory behavior is traditionally described by a basic ethogram composed of 3 phases (search, pursue, and capture), behavioral studies of large terrestrial carnivores generally use the concept of a “hunt” to classify and measure foraging. This approach is problematic because there is no consensus on what behaviors constitute a hunt. We therefore examined how […]