Carnivorous mammals: nutrient digestibility and energy evaluation

Abstract Estimating the energy content is the first step in diet formulation, as it determines the amount of food eaten and hence the concentration of nutrients required to meet the animal’s requirements. Additionally, being able to estimate the energy content of a diet empirically known to maintain body condition in an animal will facilitate an […]

Retrospective investigation of captive red wolf reproductive success in relation to age and inbreeding

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20224.abs The critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been subject to a strictly managed captive breeding program for three decades. A retrospective demographic analysis of the captive population was performed based on data from the red wolf studbook. Data analyses revealed a decrease in the effective population size relative to the total population […]

Differences in winter activity, courtship, and social behavior of two captive family groups of Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi)

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1997)16:53.3.CO;2-W The purpose of this study was to determine differences in activity patterns and social behavior of two groups of endangered Mexican wolves maintained at two quite different facilities and to determine some of the variables that should be considered when making specific behavioral comparisons among wolves in this binational captive breeding program. Quantitative […]

How well do dingoes, Canis dingo, perform on the detour task?

The [`]detour task’ assesses spatial problem-solving abilities, requiring the subject to travel around a transparent barrier to obtain a reward. Recent studies have found that domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, generally perform poorly on this task, and fail to improve performance significantly after repeated trials or generalize problem-solving strategies when conditions are reversed. In contrast, wolves, […]

First report of captive new Guinea dingo (canis dingo hallstromi) den-digging and parental behavior

Abstract New Guinea dingoes (NGDs) (Canis dingo hallstromi; Troughton [1957] Proc Roy Soc new South Wells 1955–1956:93–94) have been kept in zoos since 1956. Almost nothing is known of their wild behavior. These observations of a captive pair are the first documentation of natal den-digging and parental behavior for this taxon. The main den, excavated […]

Spontaneous Tool-Use: An Observation of a Dingo (Canis dingo) Using a Table to Access an Out-of-Reach Food Reward

Opportunities to observe non-human animals exhibiting naturalistic ‘high-order’ behaviour are rare. Examples featuring canids, although often anecdotal and involving captive animals are potentially valuable, as they may provide an opportunity to examine complex problem-solving behaviour not easily observed in free-ranging settings. This paper describes observations of two captive male dingoes (Canis dingo), representing possible examples […]

Canid reproductive biology: An integration of proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes

The canid reproductive system includes many features that are unusual or even unique among mammals. Focusing on gray wolves, for example, these include monogamy, monestrum with exceptionally long proestrous and diestrous phases, a copulatory lock or tie, incorporation of adult young into the social group, behavioral suppression of mating in these subordinate young, obligate pseudopregnancy […]

Paternal care in canids

Paternal care has never been reported as absent in any canid species, and some form of care has been seen in 18 ofthe 36 species in the family. Food provisioning, active defense of the young, and protecting young by remaining at the den as the female forages appear to be the commonest forms of male […]

Enrichment options for African painted dogs (Lycaon pictus)

Best practices for carnivore enrichment encourage the diversity of species-typical behaviors, increased activity, and reduced stereotypic behavior; ideally considering the life-history and behavior of each species. African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), or painted dogs, are social carnivores that have large home ranges and complex pack dynamics (e.g., variation in group size, relatedness, etc.). As there […]

Kinship, maternal effects, and management: Juvenile mortality and survival in captive African painted dogs, Lycaon pictus

In 77 African painted dog (Lycaon pictus) litters born in North American zoos since 1998, pup mortality at 30 days was 53% (n = 478). More alarmingly, 52% of those 77 litters had zero pups surviving at 30 days. Many variables may have the potential to affect pup mortality in captivity, including kinship, maternal age, prior maternal […]