The effect of cage size on stress levels in captive green anole (Anolis carolinensis)

Reptiles are often used as model species in scientific research and are popular in the pet trade, yet how they cope with captive conditions has not been well studied. Stress caused by captivity could affect the endocrinology, physiology and behaviour of animals, resulting in a general decrease in welfare and could confound the results of […]

Cage Size Preference in Rats in the Laboratory

The size of an enclosure is an integral part of how well it accommodates a nonhuman animal’s welfare; however, most enrichment studies concentrate on modifying the area inside the enclosure rather than enlarging it. It has been suggested that rats have little need for more cage space, but there is no empirical evidence about rats’ […]

Behavior, Appetite, and Urinary Cortisol Responses by Adult Female Pigtailed Macaques to Cage Size, Cage Level, Room Change, and Ketamine Sedation

Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and longtailed macaques (M. fascicularis) show behavioral, ecological, and possible temperament differences, and their responses to the laboratory environment might therefore be quite different. We tested pigtailed macaques under the same conditions that were investigated in a previous study with longtailed macaques, using the same comprehensive set of physiological and behavioral […]

Welfare evaluations of nonhuman animals in selected zoos in the Philippines

This study evaluated 3 zoos in the Philippines: the Wildlife Rescue Center and Mini Zoo, Manila Zoological and Botanical Garden, and Cavite Botanical and Zoological Park to determine the standards of nonhuman animal welfare. The study measured and compared the cage sizes of various animals to the international minimum standards. According to the categories of […]

The effects of cage volume and cage shape on the condition and behaviour of captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

Cage size is widely recognised as an important determinant of captive animal welfare, but in contrast, cage shape has received far less attention. Husbandry recommendations for flying birds state that cages should be long in shape because this allows greater potential for flight. However, so far no studies have investigated the impact of cage shape […]

Glucocorticoid metabolites in rabbit faeces–Influence of environmental enrichment and cage size

The concentration of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in rabbit faeces has been suggested as a non-invasive indicator of stress. In the present study, GCM concentrations were measured in faeces of fattening rabbits kept in groups of eight, at seven different stocking densities (between 5 and 20 animals/m2), with or without environmental enrichment (a wooden structure used mainly […]

Short and long-term effects of a substantial change in cage size on individually housed, adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

We investigated the effects of a six-fold increase in cage size on the behaviour of individually housed male rhesus monkeys. Limitations of previous studies included the magnitude of change in cage size, the length of the observation period, and the potential confounds of relocation. Prior to this study, eight male monkeys were individually housed in […]

Behaviour of golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) kept in four different cage sizes

Cages for laboratory and pet hamsters are usually small. Using video recordings, the behaviour of sixty female golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), housed individually in four different cage sizes, was compared in order to draw conclusions about their welfare. The cage sizes were 1,800 cm2, 2,500 cm2, 5,000 cm2, and 10,000 cm2. Enrichment items and litter […]

Effect of environmental stress and immobilization on stress physiological variables in farmed mink

The effect of cage size and nest box environment on plasma cortisol, number of eosinophil leucocytes, and on frequency of leucocyte groups was measured on 132 farmed mink. The experiment included three cage sizes (0.10 m2, 0.27 m2, and 1.1 m2) and cages with and without nest boxes. Furthermore, the effect of daily immobilization a […]

Assessment of stress in non-human primates- application of the neutrophil activation test

A technique measuring leukocyte (neutrophil) activity was used to examine differences between stress levels in a breeding colony of rhesus macoques housed in either a traditional caging system or open-rooms. The leukocyte activation test measured the degree to which blood from the two treatment groups could launch a further neutrophil response (superoxide production) to an […]