Food consumption and energy budgets of the giraffe

(1) To estimate the efficiency of the foraging strategy described in Pellew (1984), the rates of food intake of adult giraffe in the Serengeti National Park are assessed. Daily energy intakes derived from the diet are compared with estimates of the energy requirements for year-round reproduction. The reproductive performance of giraffe in the Serengeti is […]

Environmental Enrichment


Energy supply of the okapi in captivity: intake and digestion trials

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20092.abs In the nutrition of browsing ruminants in captivity, adequate nutrient digestibility and energy content of diet is debated. Problems related to energy-provision and low forage intake have been reported for the okapi and other browsers like the giraffe, particularly during winter. High-fiber concentrates like unmolassed beet pulp have some potential to improve the […]

Nutrient intake and apparent digestibility of diets consumed by captive duikers at the Dambari Field Station, Zimbabwe

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10035.abs The nutrient intake and apparent digestibility of two diets fed to seven species of captive duikers at the Dambari Field Station, Zimbabwe, were examined. The original diet consisted of pellets, mixed grain, and fruit (approximately 11% protein, 21% NDF) and the revised diet of pellets and vegetables (approximately 14% protein, 31% NDF). The […]

Feed intake, diet utilization, and composition of browses consumed by the Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) in a North American zoo

Abstract 10.1002/1098-2361(2000)19:33.3.CO;2-4 The Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), presently indigenous to the Malay peninsula and the islands of Sumatra and Borneo, is faced with extinction. It is estimated that fewer than 400 individuals still exist in the wild. In response, concerted efforts have been made to maintain and breed this species in captivity, and proper diet […]

The feeding of rhinoceros in captivity

Rhinoceros are large herbivores that are adapted for gaining energy from the fermentation of fibrous plant material. In this paper we address issues of oversupplementation of energy (leading to obesity) and minerals (particularly iron in Black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis), outline a diet design that relies on forage as the staple component with a reduction in […]

Variations in Eastern bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci) feeding practices in UK zoological collections

Abstract The feeding strategy of the Eastern bongo in the wild is unusual, poorly understood, and few captive feeding recommendations are currently available to zoos. To assess the current state of nutritional husbandry of this rare antelope, eight UK zoos were surveyed. A nutritional husbandry questionnaire was completed and bongos at each zoo were visually […]

Prevalence of Regurgitation and Reingestion in Orangutans Housed in North American Zoos and an Examination of Factors Influencing its Occurrence in a Single Group of Bornean Orangutans

Very little research has explored regurgitation and reingestion (R/R) in orangutans. We first aimed to determine the prevalence of R/R in the North American zoo population through a survey of accredited institutions. We report the prevalence of R/R in orangutans >4 years of age as 35% with some sex and species differences. Additionally, survey respondents […]

Short-term digestible energy intake in captive moose (Alces alces) on different diets

Moose (Alces alces) are regularly described as problematic animals in captivity, mainly because of their particular digestive physiology and resulting feeding demands. According to the literature, moose regularly reject non-browse forages offered in captivity, which may indirectly lead to an overproportional ingestion of easily digestible feeds and thus chronic acidosis, which may in turn be […]

Nutrient and plant secondary compound composition and iron-binding capacity in leaves and green stems of commonly used plant browse (Carolina willow; Salix caroliniana) fed to zoo-managed browsing herbivores

Plant secondary compounds are diverse structurally, and associated biological effects can vary depending on multiple factors including chemical structure and reaction conditions. Phenolic compounds such as tannins can chelate dietary iron, and supplementation of animal species sensitive to iron overload with tannins may prevent/treat iron overload disorder. We assessed the nutrient and phenolic composition and […]