Boldness at the nest predicts foraging and diving behaviour of female but not male African penguins

Optimal foraging theory suggests that the environment (e.g. distribution of resource patches) will shape an individual’s decision to exploit the resource available or explore other locations. Together with the environment and the social context, individual characteristics such as personality have been recently discovered to affect behaviour, offering new insights in the field of behavioural ecology. […]

State-dependent decisions in long-term fasting king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, during courtship and incubation

Using an automatic identification and weighing system, we investigated changes in adult body mass in relation to reproductive behaviour during courtship and incubation in free-living king penguins. Despite stressful nutritional conditions and variability of fast length, the majority of pairs incubated successfully by accumulating large body reserves before fasting, which provided flexibility in fasting strategies. […]

Can proboscis monkeys be successfully maintained in captivity? A case of swings and roundabouts

Although most western zoos have experienced difficulties in maintaining proboscis monkeys, the Singapore Zoo has managed to sustain a social group of proboscis monkeys housed in a large naturalistic exhibit since 1998. Within 3 years after the monkeys were brought to the zoo, five offspring were produced, all of which survived. Natural forest vegetation from […]

Optimal conditions for breeding of captive humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti): A survey of British zoos

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10002.abs We surveyed 16 British zoos and bird gardens to assess the optimal conditions for breeding of captive Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti). We obtained information on population, enclosure, and husbandry characteristics and related these variables to three measures of per capita breeding success, namely, per capita egg productivity, chick productivity, and hatching success (measured […]

Aspects of reproduction in the eastern rufous mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus) and their implications for captive management

Abstract The eastern rufous mouse lemur is one of the smallest primate species. It inhabits the eastern rain forest of Madagascar. Its reproductive biology has not been examined because of its rarity in laboratories. We present the first data on reproduction and variation in reproductive success from a breeding colony of wild-caught Microcebus rufus. The […]

Reproductive parameters in captive woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1999)18:53.3.CO;2-Y We present data on the reproductive parameters of the woolly monkey from five different colonies and the North American Studbook. Because this species appears to be difficult to breed in captivity and yet is of conservation concern, a description of reproductive performance should be of help to colony managers. Few females (37.5%) were […]

Evaluating methods to quantify anthropogenic stressors on wild animals

Humans have a variety of direct and indirect impacts on wildlife and a number of methods have been proposed to identify and quantify anthropogenic stressors that negatively impact wildlife. The ideal method would ultimately help predict the presence, absence, or population viability of animals living with a particular stressor. We critically review seven methods that […]

Elevated hormonal stress response and reduced reproductive output in Yellow-eyed penguins exposed to unregulated tourism

The endangered, endemic Yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) is one of the flagship species for New Zealand’s wildlife tourism, and recently concern has been raised that tourism-related pressures may be becoming too great. We compared two neighbouring breeding areas exposed to different levels of human disturbance. Penguins at the site exposed to unregulated tourism showed significantly […]

Behaviour and breeding success of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua in areas of low and high human activity

A key factor influencing wildlife responses to human activity is the degree to which animals have been previously exposed to human stimuli. On subantarctic Macquarie Island, gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua breed in areas of high and low human activity (on and off-station, respectively). We investigated the behaviour and breeding success of gentoo penguins on and […]

What factors should determine cage sizes for primates in the laboratory

It is imperative to provide adequate quantity and quality of space for all captive animals. Yet practically all guidelines on the housing of primates in the laboratory specify minimum cage sizes based solely on body weight. We argue that no single factor, such as body weight, is sufficient to determine cage size. Instead a suit […]