Arterial vascularization in the giraffe brain

The aim of this study was to analyze the system of arteries in the brain of the giraffe, including the arterial circle of the brain, its branches and junctions, as well as individual variation of the vessels. Analyses were performed on postmortem material of 12 heads of giraffes obtained from Polish zoological gardens. The age […]

General Intelligence as a Domain-Specific Adaptation

General intelligence (g) poses a problem for evolutionary psychology’s modular view of the human brain. The author advances a new evolutionary psychological theory of the evolution of general intelligence and argues that general intelligence evolved as a domain-specific adaptation for the originally limited sphere of evolutionary novelty in the ancestral environment. It has accidentally become […]

Central nervous regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its impact on fertility, immunity, metabolism and animal welfare – a review

The paper reviews mechanisms of neuronal control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with a view on its impact on performance and welfare. The limbic hippocampal and amygdaloid input to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus constitutes the basic intracerebral axis by which emotional stimuli affect the stress response. This axis is the backbone of the HPA feedback […]

Welfare of animals: Behavior as a basis for decisions

Behavioral measures are of particular value in welfare assessment; some behaviors such as stereotypies, lack of or normal responsiveness, and excessive aggression being direct indicators of poor welfare. They are especially important when the welfare problems are of long duration. In addition, the behavior of animals is also needed to interpret other welfare measures such […]

Behaviour and welfare in relation to pathology

Behaviour is an important way of adapting to disease for individuals and selective pressures resulting from disease have had major consequences for the evolution of behaviour. Behaviour, adrenal and other physiological responses, immunological responses and brain activity all help in coping with disease. Health is an important part of welfare and any pathology implies some […]

The relationship between housing and social rant on cortisol, Beta endorphin and dynorphin secretion in sows

Endogenous opioids and glucocorticoids may be useful welfare indicators in pigs. Measures of plasma cortisol were carried out in plasma samples collected hourly, from 8:00 to 17:00 h from High Ranking (HR) (n=5) Middle Ranking (MR) (n=7) and Low Ranking (LR) (n=4) group housed sows and from eight Stall Housed Sows (SHS). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) […]

Brain opioid receptors in relation to stereotypies, inactivity, and housing in sows

When animals encounter difficult conditions, endogenous opioids are often released and may help in coping with the difficulties. In sows, prolonged confinement results in behavior abnormalities: high levels of stereotypies or excessive inactivity and unresponsiveness. The possibilities of causal links between endogenous opioids and these behavioral indicators of poor welfare have been raised. Mu receptor […]

The Darwinian concept of stress: benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease

Why do we get the stress-related diseases we do? Why do some people have flare ups of autoimmune disease, whereas others suffer from melancholic depression during a stressful period in their life? In the present review possible explanations will be given by using different levels of analysis. First, we explain in evolutionary terms why different […]

Behavioural and Neural Correlates of Mental Imagery in Sheep Using Face Recognition Paradigms

Determining objective measures for proof of consciousness in non-human animals has been helped by improved understanding of neural correlates of human consciousness. Functional imaging and neuropsychological studies have shown remarkable overlap between structures involved in actual perception of social and non-social objects and those involved in forming mental images of them. One area of particular […]

Effect of nesiritide (B-type natriuretic peptide) and dobutamine on ventricular arrhythmias in the treatment of patients with acutely decompensated congestive heart failure: The PRECEDENT study

Dobutamine is commonly used as a means of treating decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF). Although typically effective at improving short-term hemodynamics and symptomatology, the frequent occurrence of arrhythmias and tachycardia is undesirable. In this randomized, multicenter trial, we compared the safety and clinical effectiveness of the cardiac hormone nesiritide (human B-type natriuretic peptide) with dobutamine […]