Does prey matter? Geographic variation in antipredator responses of hatchlings of a Japanese natricine snake (Rhabdophis tigrinus)

Rhabdophis tigrinus, which typically forages on toads, has unusual nuchal glands on its dorsal neck region containing secretions chemically comparable to cardiac steroids found in toads. R. tigrinus also has several peculiar antipredator displays involving the neck region. If the nuchal gland secretions of R. tigrinus are derived from toads obtained as prey, populations of […]

The ecology of individuals-incidence and implications for individual specialization

Most empirical and theoretical studies of resource use and population dynamics treat conspecific individuals as ecologically equivalent. This simplification is only justified if interindividual niche variation is rare, weak, or has a trivial effect on ecological processes. This article reviews the incidence, degree, causes, and implications of individual-level niche variation to challenge these simplifications. Evidence […]

Making sense of behavioral irregularities of great apes

Psychopathology, mental illness, and psychiatric treatment are concepts relevant to modern medicine and medical psychology and replete with cumbersome intellectual and literary baggage. They bear the imprint of suppositions, world views, and general beliefs and values exemplified in the science, history, and general culture of Anglo European societies. The study in higher apes of phenomena […]