Behavioral management of chimpanzees in biomedical research facilities: The state of the science

The current status of the behavioral management of chimpanzees housed in US research facilities is examined, and recent advances are described. Behavioral management includes the application of environmental enrichment, animal training, and environmental design for improving animal welfare. Authors surveyed the six major chimpanzee holding facilities and found that the vast majority of chimpanzees are […]

Control, Choice, and Assessments of the Value of Behavioral Management to Nonhuman Primates in Captivity

Many people have devoted considerable effort to enhancing the environments of nonhuman primates in captivity. There is substantial motivation to develop experimental, analytical, and interpretational frameworks to enable objective measurements of the value of environmental enrichment/behavioral management efforts. The consumer- demand approach is a framework not frequently implemented in studies of nonhuman primate welfare but […]

Managing the Socialization of an Adult Male Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) With a History of Social Deprivation

Most non-human primates exhibit aggression during changes in social group composition. In zoological parks, group membership changes are necessary for optimal population management, but can elicit problematic aggression. Furthermore, some primates with a long history of social deprivation are hyperaggressive when introduced to conspecifics. In this study of one male gorilla with a 30-year history […]

Effects of predictable versus unpredictable feeding schedules on chimpanzee behavior

One factor not often studied in the design of feeding enrichment programs is the timetable according to which enrichments are offered. This study was performed to lend a quantitative basis to primate colony management decisions concerning feeding schedules. The objective was to determine whether feeding fresh produce meals on a predictable schedule was preferable to […]

Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly […]

Maternal response to mother-offspring separation in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

For management and/or research purposes, chimpanzee mothers and their offspring are often physically separated from one another at an earlier age than they would be in the wild. Studies of the behavioural and physiological effects of mother-infant separation on infant behaviour have been conducted in both human and nonhuman primates. However, few studies have been […]

The effect of a short-term biomedical research protocol on stereotyped rocking in young Chimpanzees

Chimpanzees are sometimes housed in conditions of restricted social contact during use in biomedical research, a practice that may adversely affect their behaviour. This study measured the impact of such conditions on levels of stereotyped body rocking in six young, nursery-reared chimpanzees. Subject age at the beginning of the biomedical research protocol ranged from 1.1 […]

Comparing Two Manipulable Objects as Enrichment for Captive Chimpanzees.

This study compared the effectiveness of kraft wrapping paper and rubber toys as enrichment for 22 chimpanzees group-housed in conventional indoor/outdoor runs. Objects were tested separately during 67 hours of data collection using a group scan sampling technique. Paper was used a mean 27 per cent of the available time, while the Kong Toys™ were […]

A pilot study on the effects of a change in behavioural management on the behaviour of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

The debate on the use of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in biomedical research has been ongoing for several years now. In 2012, the decision was made to retire a large number of laboratory chimpanzees in the United States of America. Relocation of these animals to sanctuaries, rescue centres, and zoos involve several changes in environment and […]