Pharmacological therapy with a combination of alprazolam and fluoxetine and use of the trace element lithium gluconate for treating anxiety disorders and aggression in dogs

This research studied 2 different treatments, lithium gluconate and a combination of alprazolam and fluoxetine, with the aim of assessing their efficacy for treating anxiety disorders in dogs. One hundred thirty-five dogs took part in the study, divided into 2 diagnostic categories: anxious dogs with aggression and anxious dogs with no aggression. The animals in […]

Social competence is reduced in socially deprived rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

Rhesus monkeys deprived for some period from their mother have often served as a model for the effect of adverse rearing conditions on social competence in humans. Social competence is the capacity to react in a species-specific way to social interactions. The current study assesses whether early deprivation from peers also affects the rates of […]

Long-lasting, selective, anxiogenic effects of feline predator stress in mice

Lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior (ALB) are produced by brief exposure of rats to a cat [Adamec RE, Shallow T, Lasting effects on rodent anxiety of a single exposure to a cat, Physiol. Behav., 54 (1993) 101–109.]. Mice also respond defensively to natural predator stimuli. Moreover, chronic exposure of mice to rat odor has immediate […]

Early behavioural enrichment in the form of handling renders mouse pups unresponsive to anxiolytic drugs and increases NGF levels in the hippocampus

Early life experiences, such as early handling, can influence neural development of rodents leading to changes in physiological and behavioural reactivity to stress. These effects are likely to be mediated by changes in maternal behaviour. This study analyzed the effects of different manipulations of the rearing environment on maternal behaviour and the behavioural and physiological […]

Correlates of self-directed and stereotypic behaviours in captive red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus)

The quantification of behaviours linked to anxiety or stress provides a powerful means to address applied questions related to the well being of captive animals. This study explored correlates of two such behaviours – self-directed (SDB) and stereotypic behaviour (STB) – among captive red-capped mangabeys, Cercocebus torquatus torquatus. Study animals were held at two sites […]

Environmental enrichment enhances spatial cognition in rats by reducing thigmotaxis (wall hugging) during testing

Rats, Rattus norvegicus, housed with [`]environmental enrichment’ do better in tests of spatial cognition than rats housed in barren cages. The leading hypothesis is that exposure to [`]social and inanimate complexity’ leads to better cognitive-processing abilities, which directly enhances performance in a spatial task. However, enrichment is associated with reduced stress responses and anxiety in […]

Quadratic postconflict affiliation among bystanders in a hamadryas baboon group

The tendency in primate groups for two opponents to affiliate shortly after a fight has been described as dyadic reconciliation. The response has been shown to restore disrupted relationships and curtail ongoing aggression. Rates of self-directed behaviour (e.g. scratching) are positively correlated with anxiety in primates and the rates decline after reconciliation, indicating that the […]

The basic neuroscience of emotional experiences in mammals: The case of subcortical FEAR circuitry and implications for clinical anxiety

Evidence from behavioral neuroscience strongly suggests that the unconditional (innate) capacity to experience fear, along with fear-typical patterns of autonomic and behavioral arousal, arise from specific systems of the brain—the most prominent being a FEAR circuit which courses between the central amygdala and the periaqueductal gray of the midbrain. These circuits also mediate the raw […]

Sex differences in rats: Effects of chronic stress on sympathetic system and anxiety

In this study we tested whether periodic maternal deprivation (MD) (4.5 h daily during the first 3 weeks of life) caused chronic changes in anxiety and medullo-adrenal responses to chronic stress in either male or female adult (2.5 months of age) rats, or both. Repeated maternal deprivation had a sex-specific effect on epinephrine (E) and […]

Behavioural fear and heart rate responses of horses after exposure to novel objects: Effects of habituation

The emotion fear promotes the fitness of wild animals. In a farm environment, exaggerated fear, e.g., in horses, can cause several problems. Therefore, knowledge about fear in horses helps to prevent or to handle potential fear-inducing situations. The present study investigated which behavioural fear responses can be observed during exposure of horses to a novel […]