Adaptive significance of antipredator behaviour in artiodactyls

We used comparative data to test functional hypotheses for 17 antipredator behaviour patterns in artiodactyls. We examined the literature for hypotheses about auditory and visual signals, defensive behaviour and group-related antipredator behaviour in this taxon and derived a series of predictions for each hypothesis. Next, we documented occurrences of these behaviour patterns and morphological, ecological […]

Personality and foraging decisions in fallow deer, Dama dama

Recent studies have examined the ecological and evolutionary bases for variation in animal personality. However, only a few such studies have examined how foraging parameters are influenced by different personality domains. In wild ungulates, the trade-off between the time spent on food intake and antipredator behaviour differs between individuals, but the underlying reason for this […]

Predator diet and prey behaviour: freshwater snails discriminate among closely related prey in a predator’s diet

Chemical cues are commonly used by prey to assess predation risk. Prey typically respond to predator cues by altering behaviour, but their response may depend on predator diet. There are few data on how predators feeding on prey types spanning a continuous gradient of relatedness affect prey behaviour. Here I present the results of a […]

Olfactory predator recognition in predator-naïve gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus)

Olfactory cues of predators, such as feces, are known to elicit antipredator responses in animals (e.g., avoidance, activity). To date, however, there is little information on olfactory predator recognition in primates. We tested whether the odor of feces of different predator categories (historical Malagasy predators and introduced predators) and of Malagasy nonpredators (control) induces antipredator […]

Persistent effect of incubation temperature on stress-induced behavior in the Yucatan banded gecko (Coleonyx elegans)

Although variability in behavioral traits within animal populations is well documented, the mechanisms maintaining that variability are still insufficiently known. In this study, we examined whether differences in thermal environment during egg incubation can permanently organize nonsocial behavior across different contexts and situations in a lizard species. We incubated eggs of the Yucatan banded gecko, […]

Experimental evidence for olfactory predator recognition in wild mouse lemurs

Abstract Although primates have remarkable olfactory capabilities, their ability for olfactory predator recognition is still understudied. We investigated this cognitive ability in wild gray and golden-brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis) that were confronted with four different olfactory stimuli, derived from two Malagasy predators (fossa and barn owl) and two local nonpredator species […]

Death feigning by grass snakes in response to handling by human “predators.”

Death feigning, a variant of tonic immobility, is usually interpreted as a last-resort antipredator measure. The authors describe death feigning in grass snakes (Natrix natrix) and test some of its potential correlates. Death feigning was seen in 66% of wild-caught snakes but was not seen in hatchlings from laboratory-incubated eggs. Minimal indication of death feigning […]

Recognition of heterospecific alarm vocalization by Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata)

Recognition of heterospecific alarm vocalizations is an essential component of antipredator behavior in several prey species. The authors examined the role of learning in the discrimination of heterospecific vocalizations by wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) in southern India The bonnet macaques’ flight and scanning responses to playbacks of their own alarm vocalizations were compared with […]

Do individual differences influence flight initiation distance?

Flight initiation distance (FID), or the distance between a prey animal and an approaching intruder when the prey initiates its escape, is an important factor in wildlife management. We conducted a study on individually identified yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) to test 3 key assumptions of FID research: (1) differences in individual responses are small enough […]

Recognition of partially concealed leopards by wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) The role of the spotted coat

Wildbonnetmacaques (Macacaradiata) have been shown to recognize models of leopards (Panthera pardus), based on their configuration and spotted yellow coat. This study examined whether bonnetmacaques could recognize the spotted and dark melanic morph when partiallyconcealed by vegetation. Seven troops were studied at two sites in southern India, the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger […]