A Brief Glimpse at the Long Evolutionary History of Play

Play has long been considered an enigmatic behavior that is hard to define, but having many putative functions difficult to confirm. This situation is changing quite rapidly in recent years. This introduction to a special issue on play provides some general background, historical and contemporary, on the recognition and phylogenetic aspects of play, along with […]

Complexities of Using Wild versus Captive Activity Budget Comparisons for Assessing Captive Primate Welfare

Activity budget comparisons between groups or individuals in the wild and those in captivity are commonly used to determine the range of wild-type behaviors that nonhuman animals in captivity perform. These comparisons are conducted with the view that individuals displaying a greater range of wild-type behaviors have enhanced welfare. Such comparisons have a greater appeal […]

Baseline Knowledge of Potential Pet Toxins among the US General Public

In 2014, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty toAnimals Animal Poison Control Center fielded more than 167,000cases of potential nonhuman animal toxicosis. Concomitantly, thereremain limited free and reputable veterinary toxicology resourcesavailable for companion-animal (pet) caregivers (owners) seekingassistance and advice about potentially harmful exposures inanimals. The objective of this study was to assess pet […]

Investigating fear in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using the conditioned-suppression paradigm

Trout learned the operant task of pendulum-pressing for a food-reward in a mean of 4.3 sessions lasting 1 hr. In a separate phase, fish also learned–through classical conditioning–to associate a neutral light cue with an aversive stimulus. When again allowed to pendulum-press for food, after aversive classical conditioning, there was a drop in the rate […]

Animal pleasure and its moral significance

This paper presents arguments for, and evidence in support of, the important role of pleasure in animals’ lives, and outlines its considerable significance to humankind’s relationship to other animals. In the realms of animal sentience, almost all scholarly discussion revolves around its negative aspects: pain, stress, distress, and suffering. By contrast, the positive aspects of […]

Schedule-Induced Aggression in Humans and Animals: A Comparative Parametric Review

Studies of animal and human aggression induced by schedules of reinforcement are reviewed. Parameters reviewed include: schedules, characteristics of induced aggression, subject variables, target variables, and the control or modification of schedule-induced aggression. With the exception of temporal locus of schedule-induced attack, the parameters identified with animal subjects are remarkably similar to those identified with […]

Determining When Birds Perceive Correspondence Between Pictures and Objects: A Critique

The use of pictures in avian visual cognition research has expanded over the past few decades but understanding of how birds perceive pictures has not kept pace. Separate evolutionary pathways and distinct differences in existent avian and mammalian visual systems mean that researchers cannot assume that birds see pictures the way humans do. In this […]

Do all animals sleep?

Some animals never exhibit a state that meets the behavioral definition of sleep. Others suspend or greatly reduce ‘sleep’ behavior for many weeks during the postpartum period or during seasonal migrations without any consequent ‘sleep debt.’ Rats die from one form of sleep deprivation, but sleep loss has not been shown to cause death in […]

The link between metabolic rate and body temperature in galliform birds in thermoneutral and heat exposure conditions: The classical and phylogenetically corrected approach

Three galliform species (grey partridges, ring-necked pheasants, and king quail) were involved in body temperature and resting metabolic rate measurements over a broad range of ambient temperatures (20-45 degrees C). At thermoneutrality, inter-species differences in colonic temperature, as well as in metabolic rate, were observed. During heat exposure, all species reacted by elevating their body […]

A system for monitoring and improving animal visibility and its implications for zoological parks

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20245.abs With the growing trend in zoos to build complex, naturalistic exhibits comes the potential for exhibits to be so densely vegetated or complex that animals are not easily seen by zoo visitors. This can negatively impact the visitor’s visiting experience and the zoo’s ability to communicate conservation and education messages. Over the past […]