On the Way to Assess Emotions in Animals: Do Lambs (Ovis aries) Evaluate an Event Through Its Suddenness, Novelty, or Unpredictability?

Appraisal theories provide a framework that gives insight into emotions and could allow comparisons across species. According to these theories, events are first evaluated on their suddenness, novelty, and unpredictability. The authors examined the ability of lambs (Ovis aries) to evaluate an event according to these 3 criteria through 3 tests. The lambs responded to […]

Following and Joining the Informed Individual in Semifree-Ranging Tonkean Macaques (Macaca tonkeana)

The authors investigated whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) can distinguish between 2 group mates with different knowledge and improve their foraging performance. The subjects were 8 young individuals belonging to a group raised in a 2-acre park. The authors carried out 192 tests in which subgroups of 3 individuals were released in a food search […]

Ontogeny of social behavior in the megapode Australian brush-turkey (Alectura lathami)

Megapodes meet conspecifics at an unpredictable age, and it is unknown how their social behavior develops under such conditions. The authors induced encounters between 2-day-old socially naive hatchlings and up to 49-day-old chicks of the Australian brush-turkey (Alectura lathami) in a large outdoor aviary. All social behavior patterns found in older chicks were present in […]

Interplay Between Environmental and Genetic Factors in Temperament/Personality Traits in Horses (Equus caballus)

The aim of the present study was to broach the question of the relative influence of different genetic and environmental factors on different temperament/personality traits of horses (Equus caballus). The researchers submitted 702 horses to standardized experimental tests and investigated 9 factors, either genetic or environmental. Genetic factors, such as sire or breed, seemed to […]

Patterns of Vocal Sharing and Social Dynamics in a Captive Group of Campbell’s Monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli)

Although vocal sharing is widespread at several phylogenetic levels, few descriptions concerned primates. The present study involved the dynamics of vocal structures and social organization in a captive group of Campbell’s monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli) at 3-year periods, using precise sound recording and comparison. The authors focused on combined harmonic 6 calls, often involved in […]

Iberian Rock Lizards (Lacerta monticola) Assess Short-Term Changes in Predation Risk Level When Deciding Refuge Use

Prey might assess that risk level estimated in the first encounter with a predator was fixed in subsequent responses, whereas prey using flexible behavior would track short-term changes in risk. The authors examined, in the field, refuge use of Iberian rock lizards (Lacerta monticola) after simulated predator attacks and tested (a) how risk was assessed […]